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Practitioner Resources - South River Compounding Pharmacy
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Practitioner Resources

Knowledge Is Power

Anti-Infective

Amikacin

Aerosol performance of large respirable particles of amikacin sulfate produced by spray and freeze drying techniques.

In vitro effect of chlorhexidine and amikacin on oral gram-negative bacilli from bone marrow transplant recipients.

Amphotericin

A targeted peritransplant antifungal strategy for the prevention of invasive fungal disease after lung transplantation: a sequential cohort analysis.

Prophylactic application of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B in hematologic patients with neutropenia.

Use of nebulized amphotericin B in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.

Advances in upper airway diseases and allergen immunotherapy.

Association of topical amphotericin B lipid complex treatment to standard therapy for rhinomaxillary mucormycosis after liver transplantation: a case report.

A meta-analysis of topical amphotericin B for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with intranasal amphotericin B: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial.

Treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (fungus ball type, mural thickness type).

Colonization in patients receiving and not receiving topical antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Antibiotic prophylaxis of respiratory tract infection in mechanically ventilated patients. A prospective, blinded, randomized trial of the effect of a novel regimen.

Effects of topical antimicrobial agents on the human neutrophil respiratory burst.

Prevention of nosocomial lung infection in ventilated patients: use of an antimicrobial pharyngeal nonabsorbable paste.

Efficacious treatment of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis with topical amphotericin B.

A case series of the management of symptomatic azole-resistant candida (vaginal gel).

Topical amphotericin B and subconjunctival injection of fluconazole (combination therapy) versus topical amphotericin B (monotherapy) in treatment of keratomycosis.

Otic administration of amphotericin B 0.25% in sterile water.

Azithromycin

Inhaled azithromycin therapy.

Azithromycin inhibits mucus hypersecretion from airway epithelial cells.

Aztreonam

Efficacy and safety of inhaled aztreonam lysine for airway pseudomonas in cystic fibrosis.

Bifonazole

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Boric acid

Antifungal agents vs. boric acid for treating chronic mycotic vulvovaginitis.

Prevalence of Candida glabrata and its response to boric acid vaginal suppositories in comparison with oral fluconazole in patients with diabetes and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Prolonged (3-month) mycological cure rate after boric acid suppositories in diabetic women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Treatment of Torulopsis glabrata vaginitis: retrospective review of boric acid therapy.

Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder.

Butenafine

Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.

Caspofungin

Stability of extemporaneously prepared 0.5-percent caspofungin eye drops: a potential cost-savings exercise.

Penetration of topically administered 0.5-percent caspofungin eye drops into human aqueous humor.

Alternaria keratitis: clinical presentation and resolution with topical fluconazole or intrastromal voriconazole and topical caspofungin.

Suitability of caspofungin for aerosol delivery: physicochemical profiling and nebulizer choice.

Cefazolin

Pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous cefazolin in patients with clean surgical wounds.

Cefotaxime

Delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration.

Topical use of antibiotics for paranasal sinusitis.

Effect of the topical application of some newer antibiotics on the cerebral cortex.

Ceftazidime

Nebulized ceftazidime in experimental pneumonia caused by partially resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Ciclopirox

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

The use of 40% urea cream in the treatment of moccasin tinea pedis.

Ciprofloxacin

Spray-freeze-dried liposomal ciprofloxacin powder for inhaled aerosol drug delivery.

Topical ciprofloxacin is superior to topical saline and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea in children: the results of a randomized clinical trial.

Inhaled antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections: focus on ciprofloxacin.

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of ciprofloxacin containing niosomes for pulmonary delivery.

Topical steroid drops for the treatment of sinus ostia stenosis in the postoperative period.

Clarithromycin

Aerosol-based efficient delivery of clarithromycin, a macrolide antimicrobial agent, to lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages for treatment of respiratory infections.

Physicochemical and anti-bacterial performance characterization of clarithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system.

Beneficial effect of antibiotics on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells exposed to bacterial toxins.

Clindamycin

Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris.

Antibiotic treatment of acne may be associated with upper respiratory tract infections.

Improvement of cystic fibrosis during treatment with isotretinoin.

The effects of topical oral clindamycin antibiotic rinses on the bacterial content of saliva on healthy human subjects.

The use of topical oral antibiotics in head and neck prophylaxis: is it justified?

Clotrimazole

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Clotrimazole

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of clotrimazole gel containing almond oil and tween 80 as penetration enhancer for topical application.

Efficacy of topical antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis: a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis involving 14 treatments.

Repeated rhinoscopic and serologic assessment of the effectiveness of intranasally administered clotrimazole for the treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Colistimethate

A retrospective observational study on the efficacy of colistin by inhalation as compared to parenteral administration for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Monotherapy with inhaled colistin for the treatment of patients with ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis due to polymyxin-only-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria.

A closer look at aerosolized colistin.

Benefits of aerosolized colistin for ventilator-associated pneumonia: absence of proof versus proof of absence?

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to high-dose colistin aerosol therapy.

Randomized controlled trial of nebulized colistimethate sodium as adjunctive therapy of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria.

Aerosolized plus intravenous colistin versus intravenous colistin alone for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a matched case-control study.

Inhaled colistin for the treatment of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in critically ill children without cystic fibrosis.

Treatment of recurrent Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilator-associated pneumonia with doxycycline and aerosolized colistin.

Inhaled colistin as adjunctive therapy to intravenous colistin for the treatment of microbiologically documented ventilator-associated pneumonia: a comparative cohort study.

Post-neurosurgical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis successfully treated with intrathecal colistin. A new case and a systematic review of the literature.

Colistin administration to pediatric and neonatal patients.

Inhaled anti-infective agents: emphasis on colistin.

Nebulized bacitracin/colimycin: a treatment option in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis with Staphylococcus aureus? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study.

Aerosolized colistin as adjunctive treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a prospective study.

Comparative efficacy of two doses of nebulized colistimethate in the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis.

Dry powder inhalation of colistin in cystic fibrosis patients: a single dose pilot study.

Effect of long-term nebulized colistin on lung function and quality of life in patients with chronic bronchial sepsis.

Induced tolerance to nebulized colistin after severe reaction to the drug.

Pharmacokinetics of inhaled colistin in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Fluconazole

Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear.

Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study.

The role of antifungal therapy in the prevention of recurrent allergic fungal rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, controlled study (nasal spray or irrigation).

A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer for treatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

The comparison of solitary topical micafungin or fluconazole application in the treatment of Candida fungal keratitis.

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Flucytosine

Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine.

Treatment of Candida glabrata using topical amphotericin B and flucytosine.

Fluconazole

A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer fortreatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

Antifungal activity of ibuprofen alone and in combination with fluconazole against Candida species.

Chronic fungal vaginitis: the value of cultures.

Combination of fluconazole and urea in a nail lacquer for treating onychomycosis.

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study.

Medicated Lollipops for the Treatment of Oral Thrush in Children.

Prevalence of Candida glabrata and its response to boric acid vaginal suppositories in comparison with oral fluconazole in patients with diabetes and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

The role of antifungal therapy in the prevention of recurrent allergic fungal rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, controlled study.

Treatment of onychomycosis: pros and cons of antifungal agents.

Gentamicin

Gentamicin sulfate, neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate bladder irrigation.

Comparison of gentamicin distribution in the inner ear following administration via the endolymphatic sac or round window.

Systemic absorption of topical gentamicin sinus irrigation.

Effect of an implantable gentamicin-collagen sponge on sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery: a randomized trial.

Gentamicin-collagen sponge for infection prophylaxis in colorectal surgery.

Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for topical delivery of gentamicin sulphate.

Comparison of gentamicin and mupirocin in the prevention of exit-site infection and peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis.

Safety and efficacy of once-daily nasal irrigation for the treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis.

Local administration of antibiotics by gentamicin-collagen sponge does not improve wound healing or reduce recurrence rate after pilonidal excision with primary suture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Effect of gentamicin-absorbed collagen in wound healing in pilonidal sinus surgery: a prospective randomized study.

Effect of endosinusal treatment on cellular markers in mild and moderate asthmatics.

Influence of combined intravenous and topical antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of infections, organ dysfunctions, and mortality in critically ill surgical patients: a prospective, stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from oxygen-exposed, Pseudomonas-infected baboons.

Gentamicin aerosol therapy in 18 dogs: failure to induce detectable serum concentrations of the drug.

Effects of topical antimicrobial agents on the human neutrophil respiratory burst.

Griseofulvin

Topical griseofulvin in dermatophytoses.

Itraconazole

Topical antibiotic, antifungal, and antiseptic solutions decrease ciliary activity in nasal respiratory cells.

Antifungal treatment and chronic rhinosinusitis.

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients: issues and management.

Isoconazole

Double-blind study with topical Isoconazole and Terbinafine for the treatment of one patient with bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris and suggestions for new differential diagnosis.

Rapid relief of intertrigo-associated pruritus due to Candida albicans with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

Isoconazole nitrate vs isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate in the treatment of tinea inguinalis: results of a multicenter retrospective study.

Ketonazole

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid 5 percent mouthwash is an effective mode of therapy in treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcerations.

Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin inhalation solution (MP-376) in patients with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

In vitro pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin and other aerosolized antibiotics under multiple conditions relevant to chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis.

Diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis: second consensus.

Nebulized bacitracin/colimycin: a treatment option in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis with Staphylococcus aureus? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study.

Evidence-based recommendations for antimicrobial nasal washes in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Topical antibiotic, antifungal, and antiseptic solutions decrease ciliary activity in nasal respiratory cells.

LoxaSperse™

Technical Report: Characterization of the Physical and Microbiological Properties of LoxaSperse™.

Technical Report: Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing of a Budesonide LoxaSperse™ Dispersion.

Technical Report: Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing of a Gentamicin LoxaSperse™ Dispersion.

Technical Report: The Antimicrobial Activity of Itraconazole and LoxaSperse™ Against Biofilms of C. albicans.

Metronidazole

Topical treatment of peri-implantitis with metronidazole dental gel 25%. Clinical analysis and microbiological control.

Clinical evaluation of subgingival application of metronidazole 25%, and adjunctive therapy.

Effects of topical application of metronidazole-containing mucoadhesive lipogel in periodontal pockets.

Malignant cutaneous wounds: a management protocol.

Systemic absorption of metronidazole after application of a metronidazole 25% dental gel.

Topical metronidazole (10 percent) decreases posthemorrhoidectomy pain and improves healing.

Topical metronidazole can reduce pain after surgery and pain on defecation in postoperative hemorrhoidectomy.

Micafungin

Successful topical application of a new antifungal agent, micafungin, in the treatment of refractory fungal corneal ulcers: report of three cases and literature review.

The comparison of solitary topical micafungin or fluconazole application in the treatment of Candida fungal keratitis.

Initial characterization of micafungin pulmonary delivery via two different nebulizers and multivariate data analysis of aerosol mass distribution profiles.

Miconazole

Gradient HPLC-DAD stability indicating determination of miconazole nitrate and lidocaine hydrochloride in their combined oral gel dosage form.

Suction clearance and 2% topical miconazole versus the same combination with acidic drops in the treatment of otomycosis.

Minocycline

Topical minocycline for managing symptoms of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Moxifloxacin

Efficacy of topically delivered moxifloxacin against wound infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Efficacy and safety of adjunctive local moxifloxacin delivery in the treatment of periodontitis.

Mupirocin

Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.

Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbations due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin irrigations.

Microbiological outcomes following mupirocin nasal washes for symptomatic, Staphylococcus aureus-positive chronic rhinosinusitis following endoscopic sinus surgery.

Association of high-level mupirocin resistance and multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at an academic center in the midwestern United States.

Topical mupirocin/sodium hypochlorite reduces peritonitis and exit-site infection rates in children.

Emerging elevated mupirocin resistance rates among staphylococcal isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000): correlations of results from disk diffusion, Etest and reference dilution methods.

Topical antibiotics and clinical use.

The preventive effects of mupirocin against nasotracheal intubation-related bacterial carriage.

Reduction in gram-positive pneumonia and antibiotic consumption following the use of a SDD protocol including nasal and oral mupirocin.

Efficacy of nasal Staphylococcus aureus eradication by topical nasal mupirocin in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.

In vitro activity of mupirocin on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its potential implications in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Development of microsponges for topical delivery of mupirocin.

Nystatin

Survey of topical oral solutions for the treatment of chemo-induced oral mucositis.

The efficacy of nystatin combined with topical microbial agents in the treatment of burn wound sepsis.

Ofloxacin

Enhanced bacterial uptake and bactericidal properties of ofloxacin loaded on bioadhesive hydrogels against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Polymyxin B

Salvage treatment of pneumonia and initial treatment of tracheobronchitis caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli with inhaled polymyxin B.

Sulfamethoxazole

Medical management of sinusitis: educational goals and management guidelines. The International Conference on sinus Disease.

Antibacterial treatment of chronic bronchitis (author’s transl).

Topical provocation of fixed drug eruption due to sulphamethoxazole.

Terbinafine

Efficacy of topical antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis: a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis involving 14 treatments.

Efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical terbinafine nail solution in patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis: results from three randomized studies using double-blind vehicle-controlled and open-label active-controlled designs.

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients: issues and management.

Treatment of onychomycosis: pros and cons of antifungal agents.

Tobramycin

Addition of inhaled tobramycin to ciprofloxacin for acute exacerbations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in adult bronchiectasis.

Inhaled tobramycin in non-cystic fibrosis patients with bronchiectasis and chronic bronchial infection with Pseduomonas aeruginosa.

Outpatient Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bronchial Colonization with Long-term Inhaled Colistin, Tobramycin, or Both in Adults without Cystic Fibrosis.

Pulmonary spray dried powders of tobramycin containing sodium stearate to improve aerosolization efficiency.

Spray-dried carrier-free dry powder tobramycin formulations with improved dispersion properties.

Tobramycin bladder irrigation for treating a urinary tract infection in a critically ill patient.

Preparation and characterization of spray-dried tobramycin powders containing nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery.

Dose-dependent effects of topical tobramycin in an animal model of Pseudomonas sinusitis.

Aerosol antibiotics in cystic fibrosis.

Effects of an LL-37-derived antimicrobial peptide in an animal model of biofilm Pseudomonas sinusitis.

Evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of topical tobramycin against Pseudomonas sinonasal biofilms.

Inhaled tobramycin in children with acute bacterial rhinopharyngitis.

Topical antibiotics on tracheostoma prevents exogenous colonization and infection of lower airways in children.

Colonization in patients receiving and not receiving topical antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Epidemiological impact of prolonged systematic use of topical SDD on bacterial colonization of the tracheobronchial tree and antibiotic resistance. A three year study.

The effect of oropharyngeal decontamination using topical nonabsorbable antibiotics on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory tract infections in multiple trauma patients.

Inhaled tobramycin (TOBI): a review of its use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Trimethoprim

Use of dapsone in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a foal.

Medical management of sinusitis: educational goals and management guidelines. The International Conference on sinus Disease.

Methaemoglobinaemia secondary to treatment with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole associated with inhaled nitric oxide.

Pulmonary Nocardiosis.

Vancomycin

The effect of topical vancomycin applied to sternotomy incisions on postoperative serum vancomycin levels.

The management of acute lower respiratory tract infection.

Antibiotic therapy of infections of the lower respiratory tract.

In vitro activity of mupirocin on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its potential implications in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Topical antibiotic ointments for staphylococcal nasal carriers: survey of current practices and comparison of bacitracin and vancomycin ointments.

Voriconazole

The mycotic ulcer treatment trial: a randomized trial comparing natamycin vs voriconazole.

The efficacy of voriconazole in 24 ocular Fusarium infections.

Inhaled voriconazole for prevention of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

Characterization and pharmacokinetic analysis of aerosolized aqueous voriconazole solution.

The efficacy of voriconazole in 24 ocular Fusarium infections.

Alternaria keratitis: clinical presentation and resolution with topical fluconazole or intrastromal voriconazole and topical caspofungin.

Topical voriconazole solution for cutaneous aspergillosis in a pediatric patient after bone marrow transplant.

Xylitol

Tolerability of oral xylitol solution in young children: implications for otitis media prophylaxis.

Xylitol in preventing acute otitis media.

General – Antibacterial

Aerosol antibiotics: considerations in pharmacological and clinical evaluation.

Nasal irrigation with or without drugs: the evidence.

Epithelial profiling of antibiotic controlled release respiratory formulations.

Topical antibiotic treatment reduces tympanostomy tube biofilm formation.

Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

Local antibiotic delivery using tailorable chitosan sponges: the future of infection control?

Topical therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization: impact on infection risk.

Cospray dried antibiotics for dry powder lung delivery.

Using antimicrobial solution for irrigation in appendicitis to lower surgical site infection rates.

Microparticles for inhalational delivery of antipseudomonal antibiotics.

Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying for dry powder inhaler formulation of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

Microbiological insights into respiratory infections and the opportunities for inhaled therapy.

Topical Antimicrobial Therapy for Treating Chronic Wounds.

Inhaled antimicrobial therapy: doses, osmolalities and pH.
Ashp Midyear Clinical Meeting. 41(Dec). 2006.

Aerosolized antibiotics for treating hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Administration of antibiotics via the respiratory tract as monotherapy for pneumonia.

Circulation-Focused

Clonidine

Topical Gel to Treat Diabetic Neuropathy Proves Successful in Phase 2.

Diltiazem

A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo effects of topical vasodilators in human internal mammary, radial artery and great saphenous vein.

General – Ace Inhibitors

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or DuP753 prevent neointimal formation following balloon injury with single topical or multiple systemic application.

Isosorbide Dinitrate

Improvement of walking distance in patients with intermittent claudication by chronic local therapy with isosorbide dinitrate ointment.

Isosorbide dinitrate ointment in the long-term treatment of intermittent claudication [article in Italian].

Nicardipine

Effect of topical vasodilators on gastroepiploic artery graft.

Nifedipine

Intranasal delivery of cardiovascular agents: an innovative approach to cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

Evaluation of the method for nifedipine administration for a rapid onset of clinical effect: a clinical study in normal volunteers.

Nitroglycerin/Glyceryl Trinitrate

Nonsurgical treatment of chronic anal fissure: nitroglycerin and dilatation versus nifedipine and botulinum toxin.

Safety and efficacy of new glyceryl trinitrate suppository formula: first double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

The management of patients with primary chronic anal fissure: a position paper.

Propanolol

Intranasal delivery of cardiovascular agents: an innovative approach to cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

Evaluation of Skin Permeation of β-Blockers for Topical Drug Delivery.

Corticosteroid-Focused

Betamethasone

Local steroid treatment of allergic diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

Structure-activity relationships of topically active steroids: the selection of fluticasone propionate.

Other anti-inflammatory uses of intranasal corticosteroids in upper respiratory inflammatory diseases.

Budesonide

Budesonide foam versus budesonide enema in active ulcerative proctitis and proctosigmoiditis.

Effect of budesonide enema on remission and relapse rate in distal ulcerative colitis and proctitis.

Oral viscous budesonide: a potential new therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

Topical viscous budesonide suspension for treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

Clobetasol

Palliative treatment of fingernail lichen planus.

Oral and topical L-phenylalanine, clobetasol propionate, and UVA/sunlight–a new study for the treatment of vitiligo.

Topical clobetasol propionate in the treatment of psoriasis: a review of newer formulations.

Cortisone

Promotion of second intention wound healing by emu oil lotion: comparative results with furasin, polysporin, and cortisone.

Dexamethasone

Temporomandibular joint iontophoresis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

Treatment of plantar fasciitis by iontophoresis of 0.4% dexamethasone. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Relative importance of antibiotic and improved clearance in topical treatment of chronic mucopurulent rhinosinusitis. A controlled study.

Corticosteroids in the management of upper respiratory allergy: the emerging role of steroid nasal sprays.

Aerosols in the treatment of obstructive pulmonary disease.

Local application of corticosteroids in aimed treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Double-blind study of clinical and functional respiratory effects of dexamethasone isonicotinate aerosol.

Whole-body plethysmography studies on the effect of various inhalable corticosteroids in obstructive respiratory tract diseases.

Modern aerosols in the treatment of obstructive respiratory tract diseases.

Fluticasone

The effect of intranasal fluticasone propionate irrigations on salivary cortisol, intraocular pressure, and posterior subcapsular cataracts in postsurgical chronic rhinosinusitis patients.

A randomized double-blind study to compare the effects of nasal fluticasone and betamethasone on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and bone turnover in patients with nasal polyposis.

Fluticasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

The effect of topical fluticasone on nasal nitric oxide levels in a patient with allergic rhinitis.

Episodic viral wheeze in preschool children: effect of topical nasal corticosteroid prophylaxis.

The pharmacological basis for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis with topical corticosteroids.

Randomized trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in chronic stable pulmonary sarcoidosis: a pilot study.

Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy wholly abated with one week twice daily application of fluticasone propionate lotion: A case report and review of the literature

Fluticasone (Flonase®).

Fluticasone topical (Rx).

Fluticasone Propionate.

Other anti-inflammatory uses of intranasal corticosteroids in upper respiratory inflammatory diseases.

Prednisolone

Efficacy of systemic corticosteroid treatment for anosmia with nasal and paranasal sinus disease.

Local and systemic administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of olfactory loss.

Topical steroid drops for the treatment of sinus ostia stenosis in the postoperative period.

The effect of nasal packing and prednisolone on mucosal healing and reciliation in a sheep model.

Efficacy of systemic corticosteroid treatment for anosmia with nasal and paranasal sinus disease.

Triamcinolone Acetonide

Formulation and efficacy of triamcinolone acetonide mouthwash for treating oral lichen planus.

Trichloroacetic acid

The use of chemical peelings in the treatment of different cutaneous hyperpigmentations.

General Corticosteroids

Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with inhaled corticosteroids.

Topical corticosteroids applied with a squirt system are more effective than a nasal spray for steroid-dependent olfactory impairment.

Pressure-pulsed inhalation corticosteroid therapy in olfactory disorders: how we do it.

Are there any good treatments for keloid scarring after sternotomy

Clinical applications of basic research that shows reducing skin tension could prevent and treat abnormal scarring: the importance of fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures and flap surgery for keloid and hypertrophic scar reconstruction

Hypertrophic scar in a dog: histological and clinical features

595nm pulsed dye laser combined with intralesional corticosteroids in hypertrophic symptomatic scars following breast reduction surgery

Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars

Management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Phase 2 cross-over multicenter trial on the efficacy and safety of topical cyanoacrylates compared with topical silicone gel in the prevention of pathologic scars

The cost effectiveness of intralesional steroid therapy for keloids

The effect of combined steroid and calcium channel blocker injection on human hypertrophic scars in animal model: a new strategy for the treatment of hypertrophic scars

Medical and surgical management of keloids: a review

Perioperative conditions affect long-term hypertrophic scar formation

Surgical excision and immediate postoperative radiotherapy versus cryotherapy and intralesional steroids in the management of keloids: a prospective clinical trial

Scar tissue

A comparative study evaluating the tolerability and efficacy of two topical therapies for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

Letter: further options for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

The role of full-thickness skin grafting and steroid injection in the treatment of auricular keloids

The most current algorithms for the treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids

A review of the effectiveness of antimitotic drug injections for hypertrophic scars and keloids

Auricular keloids: treatment and results

Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars

Efficacy of intralesional 5-fluorouracil and triamcinolone in the treatment of keloids

Successful treatment of earlobe keloids in the pediatric population

Intralesional triamcinolone alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars

An open, randomized, controlled, comparative study of the combined effect of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and onion extract gel and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide alone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Comparison of intralesional verapamil with intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Evaluating the tolerability and efficacy of etanercept compared to triamcinolone acetonide for the intralesional treatment of keloids

Morphological analysis of the connective tissue reaction in linear hypertrophic scars treated with intralesional steroid or silicone-gel sheeting. A light and electron microscopic study

The use of corticosteroids to treat keloids: a review

Poiseuille’s law and large-bore needles: insights into the delivery of corticosteroid injections in the treatment of keloids

Effects of interferon-alpha2b on keloid treatment with triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection

Treatment of postdermabrasion facial hypertrophic and keloid scars with intralesional 5-Fluorouracil injections

Role of liquid nitrogen alone compared with combination of liquid nitrogen and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide in treatment of small keloids

A comparative clinical study of the treatment of hypertrophic scars with either intralaesional steroid or silicone gel sheeting

A review of the biologic effects, clinical efficacy, and safety of silicone elastomer sheeting for hypertrophic and keloid scar treatment and management

Current methods of treatment and prevention of pathologic scars

Head and neck keloid: treatment by core excision and delayed intralesional injection of steroid

Current use of steroids in management of abnormal raised skin scars

Betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions

New combination of triamcinolone, 5-Fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser for treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars

Safety and efficacy of local administration of contractubex to hypertrophic scars in comparison to corticosteroid treatment. Results of a multicenter, comparative epidemiological cohort study in Germany

Combined therapy in the treatment of auricular keloids

New technique for injecting corticosteroid in keloids scarring

Long-term outcome of intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of keloid scars in Asian patients

Keloid pathogenesis and treatment

Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

An open label study of clobetasol propionate 0.05% and betamethasone valerate 0.12% foams in the treatment of mild to moderate acne keloidalis

Hypertrophic and keloidal scars: an approach to polytherapy

The effects of mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil/triamcinolone on fibrosis/scar tissue formation secondary to subglottic trauma (experimental study)

Successful management of vulvar adhesions with potent topical corticosteroids: a case report

Medical and surgical therapies for keloids.

Intralesional 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloid scars

Dietary compounds inhibit proliferation and contraction of keloid and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts in vitro: therapeutic implication for excessive scarring

Hypertrophic scars and keloids: etiology and management

Laser scar revision: comparison study of 585-nm pulsed dye laser with and without intralesional corticosteroids

A comparison of the combined effect of cryotherapy and corticosteroid injections versus corticosteroids and cryotherapy alone on keloids: a controlled study

Treatment response of keloidal and hypertrophic sternotomy scars: comparison among intralesional corticosteroid, 5-fluorouracil, and 585-nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser treatments

Treatment of scars by steroid injections

Nonoperative techniques for scar management and revision

Scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids

Experience with difficult keloids

Treatment of keloid scars with pulsed dye laser and intralesional steroid

Keloids and hypertrophic scars: results with intraoperative and serial postoperative corticosteroid injection therapy

Treatment of inflamed hypertrophic scars using intralesional 5-FU

The treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Hypertrophic scars and keloids

Acute and chronic animal models for excessive dermal scarring: quantitative studies

Aetiology and management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Effect of injection of triamcinolone on type 1 procollagen and fibronectin in scar tissue

Prevention of earlobe keloid recurrence with postoperative corticosteroid injections versus radiation therapy: a randomized, prospective study and review of the literature

Treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars

A comparison of intralesional triamcinolone and cryosurgery in the treatment of acne keloids

Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Pilot study with intralesional Lipotalon injections

Keloids and hypertrophic scars

Scars and keloids

Intra- and postoperative steroid injections for keloids and hypertrophic scars

Topical corticosteroids. Which drug and when

Cortisone jet injection as therapy of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Treatment methods of keloid and hypertrophic scar formation

Evaluation of the effect of topical steroids on human scar contracture using a nude mouse model

Treatment of keloids by single intraoperative perilesional injection of repository steroid

Conservative therapy of scars and wrinkles

A protocol for the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Clinico-pathological evaluation of keloids treated with intralesional injections of corticoid

Prevention of hypertrophic scarring

Dose-dependent effects of short-term methylprednisolone on myocardial infarct extent, scar formation, and ventricular function

Treatment of keloid scars by combined cryosurgery and intralesional corticosteroids

Facial keloids and their management

The valve of prednisone in the prevention of scarring after vasovasostomy

Betamethasone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars

Combined modalities in the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

The combined use of cryosurgery and intralesional injections of suspensions of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids for reducing keloids and hypertrophic scars

Treatment of keloids and some skin diseases with topical injections of triamcinolone

The place of intralesional steroid therapy in dermatology

Healing of surgical wounds of the skin of rats after topical application of hydrocortisone, prednisolone and triamcinolone in identical concentrations and associated with an antibiotic

Treatment of cheloids and cheloid scars with intralesional corticoid injections

Use of corticoids in local treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids in children

Silicone fluid and steroids in the prevention of adhesions

The action of fluocinolone acetonide upon scar tissue formation

The treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars by corticosteroids

Pharmacodynamic effect of a preparation of cartilage on scar formation in normal experimental wounds and in scar formation delayed by cortisone

Decreased scar formation with topical corticosteroid treatment

The treatment of hyposmia with intranasal steroids.

General Corticosteroids—Stretch Marks

Aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists modulate elastin and collagen deposition in human skin

Ulceration of Striae distensae in high-grade glioma patients on concurrent systemic corticosteroid and bevacizumab therapy

Elastotic striae associated with striae distensae after application of very potent topical corticosteroids

Treatment outcome using prednisone in corticosteroid-responsive primary nephrotic syndrome in children

Cosmetic use of skin depigmentation products in Africa

Extensive striae distensae as a result of topical corticosteroid therapy in psoriasis vulgaris

A case of edematous striae distensae in lupus nephritis

Effects of mometasone furoate on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro

Dermatology-Focused

5-Fluorouracil

Topical 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of plantar warts: a prospective, randomized, and controlled clinical study.

Treatment of verruca plantaris with a combination of topical fluorouracil and salicylic acid.

Aluminum chloride

Treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.

Azelaic acid

Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

Benzoyl Peroxide

Benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of decubitus ulcers.

Utility of topical benzoyl peroxide for prevention of surgical skin wound infection.

Cantharidin

Cantharidin revisited: a blistering defense of an ancient medicine.

Childhood molluscum contagiosum: experience with cantharidin therapy in 300 patients.

Cholestyramine

Cholestyramine ointment in the treatment of perianal skin irritation following ileoanal anastomosis.

Cholestyramine ointment to treat buttocks rash and anal excoriation in an infant.

Coal tar

No increased risk of cancer after coal tar treatment in patients with psoriasis or eczema.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

Dimethylaminoethanol

The antiwrinkle effect of topical concentrated 2-dimethylaminoethanol involves a vacuolar cytopathology.

The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology.

Glycolic acid

Comparison of topical therapy for striae alba (20% glycolic acid/0.05% tretinoin versus 20% glycolic acid/10% L-ascorbic acid).

Safety and efficacy of 4% hydroquinone combined with 10% glycolic acid, antioxidants, and sunscreen in thetreatment of melasma.

The use of chemical peelings in the treatment of different cutaneous hyperpigmentations.

Glycopyrrolate

Craniofacial hyperhidrosis successfully treated with topical glycopyrrolate.

Glycopyrrolate 1% Cream.

The beneficial effect of topical glycopyrrolate in a patient with neuropathic lower extremity pain.

ABHR Gel in the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Hospice Patient.

Hydroquinone

A double-blind randomized trial of 5% ascorbic acid vs. 4% hydroquinone in melasma.

Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

Safety and efficacy of 4% hydroquinone combined with 10% glycolic acid, antioxidants, and sunscreen in thetreatment of melasma.

Imiquimod

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

Kojic acid

Modern approach to topical treatment of aging skin.

The use of chemical peelings in the treatment of different cutaneous hyperpigmentations.

Methotrexate

Management of psoriasis vulgaris with methotrexate 0.25% in a hydrophilic gel: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

Topical 0.25% methotrexate gel in a hydrogel base for palmoplantar psoriasis.

Topical methotrexate delivered by iontophoresis in the treatment of recalcitrant psoriais–a case report.

N-acetylcysteine

Topical N-acetylcysteine for lamellar ichthyosis.

Topical use of N-acetylcysteine for reduction of skin reaction to radiation therapy.

NADH

Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Topical application of NADH for the treatment of rosacea and contact dermatitis.

Niacinamide

Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin.

Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin.

Nicotinamide

Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin.

Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review.

Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

Phenol

Phenol and menthol in the treatment of chronic skin lesions following mustard gas exposure.

Phenylalanine

Decreased phenylalanine uptake and turnover in patients with vitiligo.

Oral and topical L-phenylalanine, clobetasol propionate, and UVA/sunlight–a new study for the treatment of vitiligo.

Treatment of vitiligo with oral and topical phenylalanine: 6 years of experience.

Phytonadione

The effects of topical application of phytonadione, retinol and vitamins C and E on infraorbital dark circles and wrinkles of the lower eyelids.

Potassium Hydroxide

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of 5% potassium hydroxide for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with potassium hydroxide: a clinical approach in 35 children.

Pramoxine

A pramoxine-based anti-itch lotion is more effective than a control lotion for the treatment of uremic pruritus in adult hemodialysis patients.

Potassium Hydroxide

An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of 5% potassium hydroxide for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with potassium hydroxide: a clinical approach in 35 children.

Pramoxine

A pramoxine-based anti-itch lotion is more effective than a control lotion for the treatment of uremic pruritus in adult hemodialysis patients.

Propantheline bromide

Propantheline bromide in the management of hyperhidrosis associated with spinal cord injury.

Pseudocatalase

In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase.

Melanocytes are not absent in lesional skin of long duration vitiligo.

Successful treatment of oxidative stress in vitiligo.

Treatment of vitiligo with a topical application of pseudocatalase and calcium in combination with short-term UVB exposure: a case study on 33 patients.

Pyrithione zinc

Does tachyphylaxis occur in long-term management of scalp seborrheic dermatitis with pyrithione zinc-based treatments?

Retinoic acid

Comparison of topical therapy for striae alba (20% glycolic acid/0.05% tretinoin versus 20% glycolic acid/10% L-ascorbic acid).

Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) improves early stretch marks.

Topical tretinoin 0.1% for pregnancy-related abdominal striae: an open-label, multicenter, prospective study.

Retinol

The effects of topical application of phytonadione, retinol and vitamins C and E on infraorbital dark circles and wrinkles of the lower eyelids.

Salicylic Acid

Combination urea and salicylic acid ointment nail avulsion in nondystrophic nails: a follow-up observation.

The EVERT (effective verruca treatments) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of verrucae.

Topical tacrolimus ointment combined with 6% salicylic acid gel for plaque psoriasis treatment.

Treatment of verruca plantaris with a combination of topical fluorouracil and salicylic acid.

Sodium Salicylate

Treatment of plantar verrucae using 2% sodium salicylate iontophoresis.

Spironolactone

Comparison of the efficacy of 5% topical spironolactone gel and placebo in the treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized controlled trial.

Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

Squaric acid

Squaric acid immunotherapy for warts in children.

Squaric acid dibutylester

Contact immunotherapy with squaric acid dibutylester for the treatment of recalcitrant warts.

Squaric acid immunotherapy for warts in children.

Use of squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) for cutaneous warts in children.

Sucralfate

Natural history of late radiation proctosigmoiditis treated with topical sucralfate suspension.

Topical sucralfate in the management of peristomal skin disease: an open study.

Topical use of Sucralfate Cream in second and third degree burns.

Tacrolimus

Topical tacrolimus ointment combined with 6% salicylic acid gel for plaque psoriasis treatment.

Tamoxifen

Topical tamoxifen–a potential therapeutic regime in treating excessive dermal scarring?

Tazarotene

Palliative treatment of fingernail lichen planus.

Trichloroacetic acid

The use of chemical peelings in the treatment of different cutaneous hyperpigmentations.

Urea

A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1%and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer for treatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

Combination of fluconazole and urea in a nail lacquer for treating onychomycosis.

Combination urea and salicylic acid ointment nail avulsion in nondystrophic nails: a follow-up observation.

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Nail avulsion: Indications and methods (surgical nail avulsion).

The use of 40% urea cream in the treatment of moccasin tinea pedis.

Urea ointment in the nonsurgical avulsion of nail dystrophies–a reappraisal.

Urea plasters alternative to surgery for nail removal.

Urea ointment in the nonsurgical avulsion of nail dystrophies–a reappraisal.

Pain-Focused

ABHR

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy- induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Tolerability of the compound ABHR in hospice patients.

Acetaminophen/Codeine

Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients.

Acetic acid

Management of heel pain syndrome with acetic acid iontophoresis.

Amitriptyline

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical amitriptyline in healthy volunteers.

Evaluation of the effect of locally administered amitriptyline gel as adjunct to local anesthetics in irreversible pulpitis pain.

Topical amitriptyline combined with topical ketamine for the management of recalcitrant localized pruritus: a retrospective pilot study.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for treatment of rectal, genital, and perineal pain and discomfort.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Combination gel of 1% amitriptyline and 0.5% ketamine to treat refractory erythromelalgia pain: a new treatment option?

Peripheral antinociceptive actions of desipramine and fluoxetine in an inflammatory and neuropathic pain test in the rat.

Use of transdermal amitriptyline gel in a patient with chronic pain and depression.

Topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and lidocaine in neuropathic pain caused by radiation skin reaction: a pilot study.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical amitriptyline combined with ketamine for the treatment of erythromelalgia: a retrospective study of 36 patients at Mayo Clinic.

A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Baclofen

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Permeation and systemic absorption of R- and S-baclofen across the nasal mucosa.

Effects of topical baclofen on C fibre-evoked neuronal activity in the rat dorsal horn.

Novel Vesicular Approach For Topical Delivery of Baclofen Via Niosomes.

Bupivicaine

Topical bupivacaine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine for post-tonsillectomy pain relief in children: a randomized controlled study.

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine 5, 10 and 20 μg/h transdermal patch: a review of its use in the management of chronic non-malignant pain.

Efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) for chronic moderate to severe low back pain: a randomized, double-blind study.

Transdermal buprenorphine plus oral paracetamol vs an oral codeine-paracetamol combination for osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee: a randomised trial.

Clinical update on the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine.

Efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 289 patients with severe cancer pain.

Is there a ceiling effect of transdermal buprenorphine? Preliminary data in cancer patients.

Butorphanol

Bioavailability of intranasal butorphanol administered from a single-dose sprayer.

The efficacy and safety of transnasal butorphanol for postoperative pain control following lower laparoscopic surgery.

Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate administered from single-dose intranasal sprayer.

Capsaicin

Intranasal capsaicin reduces nasal hyperreactivity in idiopathic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized application regimen study.

Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial.

The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa.

Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Carbamazepine

Design and in vitro evaluation of a novel vaginal drug delivery system based on gelucire.

Thermally reversible in situ gelling carbamazepine liquid suppository.

Carbamazepine uptake into rat brain following intra-olfactory transport.

Nasal administration of carbamazepine using chitosan microspheres: in vitro/in vivo studies.

Rectal doxepin and carbamazepine therapy in patients with cancer.

Rectal administration of carbamazepine gel.

Bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine mixture.

Rectal administration of carbamazepine suspension.

Celecoxib

Preparation and evaluation of celecoxib transdermal patches.

Development and evaluation of transdermal patches of celecoxib.

Reduction of scar formation in full-thickness wounds with topical celecoxib treatment.

Preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal matrix films of celecoxib.
Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica. 53(1): p 67-76. 2011. IPA Accession Number: 48-13419

Preparation, charactarization and anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib chitosan gel formulations.

In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.

Clonazepam

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Topical clonazepam in stomatodynia: a randomised placebo-controlled study.

Cyclobenzaprine

Pharmacological approaches other than opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management.

Gel relieves arthritis pain.
American Druggist. 215(May): p 56. 1998. IPA Accession Number: 35-10714.

Dextromethorphan

Efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine at two dosage levels for diabetic neuropathic pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

Diazepam

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Diclofenac

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: The Importance of Drug, Delivery, and Therapeutic Outcome.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

The efficacy and safety of low-dose diclofenac sodium 0.1% gel for the symptomatic relief of pain and erythema associated with superficial natural sunburn.

An open-label, long-term safety and tolerability trial of diclofenac sodium 1% gel in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide compared with placebo for the treatment of osteoarthritis: pooled safety results.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in minor soft tissue injury.

Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury.

Gastrointestinal tolerability of diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3%: a pooled analysis of 14 clinical studies.

A comparative subjective assessment study of PENNSAID® and Voltaren Gel®, two topical formulations of diclofenac sodium.

Safety profile of topical diclofenac: a meta-analysis of blinded, randomized, controlled trials in musculoskeletal conditions.

Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium gel for knee osteoarthritis in elderly and younger patients: pooled data from three randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials.

Diclofenac epolamine plus heparin plaster versus diclofenac epolamine plaster in mild to moderate ankle sprain: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial.

A long-term, open-label study to confirm the safety of topical diclofenac solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of the osteoarthritic knee.

Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers.

Topical diclofenac solution.

Randomized controlled trial of diclofenac sodium gel in knee osteoarthritis.

Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.

Diclofenac epolamine (Flector) patch: evidence for topical activity.

Randomized clinical comparisons of diclofenac concentration in the soft tissues and blood plasma between topical and oral applications.

Review of the pharmaceutical properties and clinical effects of the topical NSAID formulation, diclofenac epolamine.

Tolerability of Topical Diclofenac Sodium 1% Gel for Osteoarthritis in Seniors and Patients With Comorbidities.

Comparative In Vitro Transmucosal Permeation of Three Proprietary Diclofenac Gels.

A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

Doxepin

Oral Doxepin Rinse: The Analgesic Effect and Duration of Pain Reduction in Patients with Oral Mucositis Due to Cancer Therapy.

Doxepin HCl

Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Etodolac

Pharmacokinetic study of etodolac after rectal administration; “in vitro” release kinetics.

Felbamate

Rectal administration of felbamate in a child with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Fentanyl

New formulations of fentanyl for acute pain management.

Intranasal fentanyl for analgesia in the paediatric emergency department.

Formulation issues associated with transdermal fentanyl delivery.

Pharmacokinetics of intranasal fentanyl spray in patients with cancer and breakthrough pain.

Does the standard intravenous solution of fentanyl (50 microg/mL) administered intranasally have analgesic efficacy?

Pharmacokinetic comparisons of three nasal fentanyl formulations; pectin, chitosan and chitosan-poloxamer 188.

Bioequivalence following buccal and sublingual placement of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy subjects.

Effect of buccal dwell time on the pharmacokinetic profile of fentanyl buccal tablet.

Absorption of fentanyl from fentanyl buccal tablet in cancer patients with or without oral mucositis: a pilot study.

Flurbiprofen

Effect of olive oil on transdermal penetration of flurbiprofen from topical gel as enhancer.

Effects of solid carriers on the crystalline properties, dissolution and bioavailability of flurbiprofen in solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (solid SNEDDS).

Potential use of nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery of flurbiprofen.

Effect of counter-ions and penetration enhancers on the skin permeation of flurbiprofen.

Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.

Improvement in bioavailability of transdermally applied flurbiprofen using tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and turpentine oil.

Formulation and evaluation of flurbiprofen microemulsion.

Characterization of the transdermal transport of flurbiprofen and indomethacin.

In Vitro/In Vivo Assessment of Flurbiprofen-Matrix Type Transdermal Delivery System.

Formulation and evaluation of flurbiprofen microemulsion.

Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.

Flurbiprofen in gel: study of acceptability, tolerability and evaluation of its allergenic potential.

Intracrevicular application of 0.3% Flurbiprofen gel and 0.3% Triclosan gel as anti inflammatory agent. A comparative clinical study.

In vitro release studies of flurbiprofen from different topical formulations.

Topical Delivery of Flurbiprofen from Pluronic Lecithin Organogel.

Gabapentin

Adjuvant analgesics.

Evaluation of gabapentin in the treatment of generalized vulvodynia, unprovoked.

Spermine modulation of specific [3H]-gabapentin binding to the detergent-solubilized porcine cerebral cortex alpha 2 delta calcium channel subunit.

Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia.

Topical analgesic combinations for bortezomib neuropathy.

Recent advances in the pharmacological management of pain.

Skin involvement in zoster.

A case of rheumatoid arthritis presenting with postherpetic neuralgia and abdominal-wall pseudohernia.

Extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement for abdominal wall contour abnormalities following TRAM flap.

Topical gel for neuropathic pain.
U.S. Pharmacist. 27(10): p 84-86. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 40-05316

Haloperidol

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Hydromorphone

A multicenter, open-label, exploratory dose-ranging trial of intranasal hydromorphone for managing acute pain from traumatic injury.

A multiple-dose phase I study of intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers.

Ibuprofen

Antifungal activity of ibuprofen alone and in combination with fluconazole against Candida species.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and admission to hospital for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation: a record linkage case-control study.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

The effect of formulation vehicles on the in vitro percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen.

Optimisation of cosolvent concentration for topical drug delivery III–influence of lipophilic vehicles on ibuprofen permeation.

Ibuprofen transdermal ethosomal gel: characterization and efficiency in animal models.

Oral versus topical Ibuprofen for chronic knee pain: a prospective randomized pilot study.

Effects of ibuprofen topical gel on muscle soreness.

Optimisation of cosolvent concentration for topical drug delivery – II: influence of propylene glycol on ibuprofen permeation.

Development and Evaluation of Ibuprofen Transdermal Gel Formulations.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 9(4): p 355-363. 2010. IPA Accession Number: 47-17303

Indomethacin

Microemulsion: a novel transdermal delivery system to facilitate skin penetration of indomethacin.

Assessment of the percutaneous penetration of indomethacin from soybean oil microemulsion: effects of the HLB value of mixed surfactants.

Physicochemical performances of indomethacin in cholesteryl cetyl carbonate liquid crystal as a transdermal dosage.

Efficacy of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine versus sumatriptan in acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a multicenter, randomized, crossover trial.

Ketamine

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Ketamine mouthwash for mucositis pain.

Reduction of allodynia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of topical ketamine.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical ketamine treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal Lidocaine and Ketamine for Neuropathic Pain: A Study of Effectiveness and Tolerability.

Recent advances in postoperative pain management.

Ketamine: an introduction for the pain and palliative medicine physician.

Ketamine as an analgesic: parenteral, oral, rectal, subcutaneous, transdermal and intranasal administration.

Topical ketamine treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal ketamine as an adjuvant for postoperative analgesia after abdominal gynecological surgery using lidocaine epidural blockade.

Mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain.

Topical ketamine and morphine for post-tonsillectomy pain.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical ketamine gel: possible role in treating neuropathic pain.

Topical ketamine in the treatment of mucositis pain.

Topical ketamine cream in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind initial study.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Topical amitriptyline combined with ketamine for the treatment of erythromelalgia: a retrospective study of 36 patients at Mayo Clinic.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for treatment of rectal, genital, and perineal pain and discomfort.

A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Ketoprofen

Ketoprofen absorption by muscle and tendon after topical or oral administration in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Ketoprofen gel as an adjunct to physical therapist management of a child with Sever disease.

Management of uncomplicated ankle sprains with topical or oral ketoprofen treatment. A registry study.

New therapeutic approaches for management of sport-induced muscle strains.

Percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen from different anatomical sites in man.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and admission to hospital for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation: a record linkage case-control study.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles on percutaneous delivery of spantide II and ketoprofen.

Physical characteristics, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy of the ketoprofen patch: a new patch formulation.

Efficacy and safety of ketoprofen patch in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Physicochemical studies of binary eutectic of ibuprofen and ketoprofen for enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion for topical delivery.

Pre-treatment with Aloe vera juice does not enhance the in vitro permeation of ketoprofen across skin.

Topical ketoprofen TDS patch versus diclofenac gel: efficacy and tolerability in benign sport related soft-tissue injuries.

Topical ketoprofen patch.

Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in rabbit after a single topical application.

In vitro release and antiinflammatory activity of topical formulations of ketoprofen.

Topical treatment of soft tissue rheumatism and athletic injuries. Effectiveness and tolerance of a new ketoprofen gel.

Ketoprofen 2.5% gel versus placebo gel in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries.

Percutaneous treatment of acute soft tissue lesions with naproxen gel and ketoprofen gel.

Ketoprofen vs etofenamate in a controlled double-blind study: evidence of topical effectiveness in soft tissue rheumatic pain.

Compounding of a topical drug with prospective natural surfactant-stabilized pharmaceutical bases: Physicochemical and in vitro/in vivo characterization – A ketoprofen case study.

Addition of UVA-absorber butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane to topical ketoprofen formulation reduces ketoprofen-photoallergic reaction.

Itra-articular absorption and distribution of ketoprofen after topical plaster application and oral intake in 100 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.

Ketorolac

SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) nasal spray: a novel nonopioid alternative for managing moderate to moderately severe dental pain.

Development and characterization of mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery of ketorolac.

A novel formulation of ketorolac tromethamine for intranasal administration: preclinical safety evaluation.

Ketorolac trometamol topical formulations: release behaviour, physical characterization, skin permeation, efficacy and gastric safety.

Preparation and characterization of spray-dried mucoadhesive microspheres of ketorolac for nasal administration.

Intranasal ketorolac: for short-term pain management.

The pharmacokinetics of ketorolac after single postoperative intranasal administration in adolescent patients.

Lamotrigine

Relative bioavailability of lamotrigine chewable dispersible tablets administered rectally.

Rectal absorption of lamotrigine compressed tablets.

Off-Label Drug Uses – Lamotrigine: Rectal administration.
Hospital Pharmacy. 37(7): p 722,725-726. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 39-16699

Lidocaine

Efficacy of treatment to relieve mucositis-induced discomfort.

Lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine gel versus tetracaine adrenaline cocaine gel for topical anesthesia in linear scalp and facial lacerations in children aged 5 to 17 years.

Lidocaine lollipop as single-agent anesthesia in upper GI endoscopy.

Misoprostol 0.001% and Lidocaine 0.5% Oral Rinse.

Misoprostol 0.0024% and Lidocaine 1% in Glycerin Mouth Paint.

Survey of topical oral solutions for the treatment of chemo-induced oral mucositis.

Temporomandibular joint iontophoresis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

The analgesic effect of a metered-dose 8% lidocaine pump spray in posttraumatic peripheral neuropathy: a pilot study.

Transdermal Lidocaine and Ketamine for Neuropathic Pain: A Study of Effectiveness and Tolerability.

Quantitative and selective evaluation of differential sensory nerve block after transdermal lidocaine.

Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus tetracaine gel for procedural pain in children.

Topical lignocaine gel for split-thickness skin graft donor-site pain management.

Topical lidocaine gel relieves postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal application of 10% lidocaine-gel for management of pain associated with herpes zoster.

Antihyperalgesic efficacy of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in capsaicin and sunburn pain models–two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials in healthy volunteers.

Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

5% lidocaine-medicated plaster vs other relevant interventions and placebo for post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN): a systematic review.

Safety and efficacy of a rapid-acting topical 4% lidocaine gel in a unique drug delivery system.

Using lidocaine as an additional topical local anesthetic agent in gynecological procedures.

Comparing healthcare costs of Medicaid patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) treated with lidocaine patch 5% versus gabapentin or pregabalin.

Post-herpetic neuralgia: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, pregabalin, or a combination of both? A randomized, open, clinical effectiveness study.

Comparison of cutaneous anesthetic effect of 8% lidocaine spray with lidocaine patch using current perception threshold test.

Lidocaine eye drops attenuate pain associated with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia.

Reducing the flavour of oral lidocaine: randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of mint-flavoured mouthwash.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

Lidocaine 5% medicated plaster: a review of its use in postherpetic neuralgia.

Single-layer transdermal film containing lidocaine: modulation of drug release.

Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

A comparison of the lidocaine patch 5% vs naproxen 500 mg twice daily for the relief of pain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: a 6-week, randomized, parallel-group study.

An alternative lidocaine hydrochloride liposomal gel formulation: preparation, percutaneous permeation, and release kinetics.

Safety of occluded 4% liposomal lidocaine cream.

Development of lidocaine gels for enhanced local anesthetic action.

Warm steaming enhances the topical anesthetic effect of lidocaine.

Fractional lasers in dermatology–current status and recommendations.

Our experiences in chronic benign pain by injecting local anesthetic into scars.

Effect of lidocaine tape on pain during intra-lesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of keloid.

Remodelling of keloid tissue into normal-looking skin.

Synthetic therapy for keloid in aural region.

ArteFill: a permanent skin filler.

Pain-free intralesional injection of triamcinolone for the treatment of keloid.

An approach to management of keloids.

Current concepts in the management of keloids.

Comparison of a topical mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) versus 1% lidocaine infiltration on wound healing.

Topical gel for neuropathic pain.
U.S. Pharmacist. 27(10): p 84-86. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 40-05316

Lorazepam

ABHR Gel in the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Hospice Patient.

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Meloxicam

Meloxicam β-cyclodextrin transdermal gel: physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution and diffusion studies.

Formulation of meloxicam gel for topical application: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Design, Characterization, and Evaluation of Meloxicam Gel Prepared by Suspension and Solution Polymerization Using Solubility Parameter as the Basis for Development.

Methadone

Evaluation of methadone absorption after topical administration to hospice patients.

Use of sublingual methadone for treating pain of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

Analgesic effects of topical methadone: a report of four cases.

Midazolam

Community use of intranasal midazolam for managing prolonged seizures.

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Intranasal midazolam therapy for pediatric status epilepticus.

Misoprostol

A prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded pilot study of misoprostol rectal suppositories in the prevention of acute and chronic radiation proctitis symptoms in prostate cancer patients.

Misoprostol 0.001% and Lidocaine 0.5% Oral Rinse.

Misoprostol 0.0024% and Lidocaine 1% in Glycerin Mouth Paint.

Misoprostol 0.0027% Mucoadhesive Powder.

Morphine

Effect of topical morphine for mucositis-associated pain following concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma.

Oral morphine as symptomatic treatment of dyspnoea in patients with advanced cancer.

Peripheral opioids in inflammatory pain.

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea.

The bioavailability of morphine applied topically to cutaneous ulcers.

Effect of topical morphine (mouthwash) on oral pain due to chemotherapy- and/or radiotherapy-induced mucositis: a randomized double-blinded study.

Pain-relieving properties of topically applied morphine on arterial leg ulcers: a pilot study.

The analgesic efficacy and safety of a novel intranasal morphine formulation (morphine plus chitosan), immediate release oral morphine, intravenous morphine, and placebo in a postsurgical dental pain model.

Morphine bioavailability from a topical gel formulation in volunteers.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of morphine-chitosan nasal solution in patients with moderate to severe pain following orthopedic surgery.

A randomised controlled trial to test the analgesic efficacy of topical morphine on minor superficial and partial thickness burns in accident and emergency departments.

Chronic arthritis pain management with topical morphine: case series.

Morphine in intrasite gel applied topically to painful ulcers.

Naproxen

Preparation of high solubilizable microemulsion of naproxen and its solubilization mechanism.

Evaluation of glycofurol-based gel as a new vehicle for topical application of naproxen.

Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of naproxen from different liposomal formulations.

Evaluation of skin permeation and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of new naproxen microemulsion formulations.

Evaluation of Glycofurol-Based Gel as a New Vehicle for Topical Application of Naproxen.

Oxcarbazepine

Relative bioavailability, metabolism and tolerability of rectally administered oxcarbazepine suspension.

Oxycodone

A randomised controlled trial with prolonged-release oral oxycodone and naloxone to prevent and reverse opioid-induced constipation.

Phenobarbital

Brain penetration and anticonvulsant efficacy of intranasal phenobarbital in rats.

Relative bioavailability of rectally administered phenobarbital sodium parenteral solution.

Transdermal delivery of Phenobarbital: Preformulation studies.

Phenytoin

The effect of systemic and local irradiation on wound macrophages and the repair promoting action of phenytoin sodium.

Phenytoin in wound healing.

Role of phenytoin in wound healing–a wound pharmacology perspective.

Topical phenytoin in diabetic foot ulcers.

Topical phenytoin in the treatment of split-thickness skin autograft donor sites: a comparative study with polyurethane membrane drape and conventional dressing.

Topical phenytoin in wound healing.

Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly.

The effect of topical phenytoin on healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled trial.

The use of topical phenytoin for healing of chronic venous ulcerations.

Effect of topical phenytoin on burn wound healing in rats.

Two percent topical phenytoin sodium solution in treating pyoderma gangrenosum: a cohort study.

Assessment of the effect of phenytoin on cutaneous healing from excision of melanocytic nevi on the face and on the back.

The impact of topical phenytoin on recalcitrant neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration.

Topical phenytoin solution for treating pressure ulcers: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

The clinical effect of topical phenytoin on wound healing: a systematic review.

Topical diphenylhydantoin sodium can improve healing in a diabetic incisional animal wound model.

Wound bed preparation with 10-percent phenytoin ointment increases the take of split-thickness skin graft in large diabetic ulcers.

A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers [ISRCTN33429693].

Topical phenytoin suspension and normal saline in the treatment of leprosy trophic ulcers: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

Topical phenytoin for wound healing.

Phenytoin in cutaneous medicine: its uses, mechanisms and side effects.

Topical phenytoin versus EUSOL in the treatment of non-malignant chronic leg ulcers.

A comparison of topical Phenytoin with Silverex in the treatment of superficial dermal burn wounds.

Topical phenytoin in diabetic ulcers: a double blind controlled trial.

Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly.

Absorption of phenytoin from rectal suppositories formulated with a polyethylene glycol base.

Absorption of rectally administered phenytoin: a pilot study.

Role of phenytoin in wound healing–a wound pharmacology perspective.

Phenytoin in wound healing.

Systemic absorption of topical phenytoin sodium.

Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study.

Lidocaine hydrochloride 2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 2% topical wound powder.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(4): p 298. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-01070

Metronidazole 2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 5% topical gel.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(4): p 299. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-00408

Case report: Topical gel for the treatment of a refractory leg ulcer.

Piroxicam

A clinical comparison of topical piroxicam and EMLA cream for pain relief and inflammation in laser hair removal.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Promotion of second intention wound healing by emu oil lotion: comparative results with furasin, polysporin, and cortisone.

A pilot double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial of topical virgin olive oil versus piroxicam gel in osteoarthritis of the knee.

Evaluation of proniosomes as an alternative strategy to optimize piroxicam transdermal delivery.

Topical absorption of piroxicam from organogels–in vitro and in vivo correlations.

Transdermal delivery of piroxicam using microemulsions.

Suprascapular nerve block or a piroxicam patch for shoulder tip pain after day case laparoscopic surgery.

Transdermal lontophoresis and skin retention of piroxicam from gels containing piroxicam: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes.

In vitro based index of topical anti-inflammatory activity to compare a series of NSAIDs.

A clinical evaluation of flurbiprofen LAT and piroxicam gel: a multicentre study in general practice.

Plasma and cutaneous drug levels after topical application of piroxicam gel: a study in healthy volunteers.

Piroxicam 0.5% topical gel compared to placebo in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries: a double-blind study comparing efficacy and safety.

Effect of piroxicam gel for pain control and inflammation in Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser hair removal.

Transbuccal permeation, anti-inflammatory activity and clinical efficacy of piroxicam formulated in different gels.

Piroxicam gel, compared to EMLA cream is associated with less pain after venous cannulation in volunteers.

Prilocaine

Fractional lasers in dermatology–current status and recommendations

Safe and less painful injection of triamcinolone acetonide into a keloid–a technique

Comparison of a topical mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) versus 1% lidocaine infiltration on wound healing

The influence of a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine on minor surgical procedures: a randomized controlled double-blind trial.

Prochlorperazine

Efficacy of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine versus sumatriptan in acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a multicenter, randomized, crossover trial.

Quinidine

Efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine at two dosage levels for diabetic neuropathic pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

Topiramate

Relative bioavailability of topiramate administered rectally.

Valproic Acid

Chronopharmacokinetic study of valproic acid in man: comparison of oral and rectal administration.

Percutaneous absorption of valproic acid and its plasma concentration after application of ointment.

Zonisamide

Utility of a rectal suppository containing the antiepileptic drug zonisamide.

Gentamicin sulfate 0.2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 5% topical gel.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(6): p 472. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-03369

General Pain

In vitro and In vivo Percutaneous Absorption of Topical Dosage Forms: Case Studies. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2005.

Intestinal toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical NSAIDs for Acute Pain: A Meta-Analysis.

Topical treatment of neuropathic pain.

Five compounds for treating diabetes related conditions.

Topical and Peripherally Acting Analgesics.

Transdermal gel in the treatment of postoperative pain.

Topical therapy for osteoarthritis: clinical and pharmacologic perspectives.

Efficacy and safety of a topical diclofenac solution in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle controlled clinical trial.

A multiple-dose, open-label, safety, compliance, and usage evaluation study of epicutaneously applied Diractin (ketoprofen in Transfersome) in joint/musculoskeletal pain or soft tissue inflammation.

Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia.

A clinical comparison of topical piroxicam and EMLA cream in pain relief and inflammation in laser hair removal.

Topical or oral ibuprofen for chronic knee pain in older people. The TOIB study.

Use of topical medication in orofacial neuropathic pain: a retrospective study.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Analgesic synergy between topical opioids and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the mouse model of thermal pain.

Topical diclofenac and its role in pain and inflammation: an evidence-based review.

Topical treatments for pain.

The use of topical opioids to relieve pressure ulcer pain.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

Rectal administration of antiepileptic drugs in children.

Rectal anticonvulsants in pediatric practice.

Systematic review of the role of alternative application routes for opioid treatment for moderate to severe cancer pain: an EPCRC opioid guidelines project.

Transdermal opioids as front line treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain: a systemic review.

Should topical opioid analgesics be regarded as effective and safe when applied to chronic cutaneous lesions?

Topical anesthetic creams.

Predictors of topical anesthetic effectiveness in children.

Do topical analgesics reduce pain associated with wound dressing changes or debridement of chronic wounds?

Topical Analgesics: A Review of Reviews and a Bit of Perspective.

Topical Compounded Pain Creams And Pain Perception (TOPCAPP).

National Survey: Topical Prescription Creams Reduce Pain in Five of Every Six Chronic Pain Patients, Without Need for Opioids or Other Narcotics – CNBC.

Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Scar-Focused

PracaSil™-Plus

Case Study: Facial Scars PCCA PracaSil™-Plus.

Case Study: Ankle Scars (Old & New) PCCA PracaSil™-Plus.

Case Study: Snake Burn PCCA PracaSil™-Plus Veterinary.

Technical Report: Efficacy of PracaSil™-Plus in Scar Therapy Treatment.

Case Study: Facial Burn & Diaper Rash PCCA PracaSil™-Plus Pediatrics.

Abstract: Compounding for Complex Patients – Pediatrics.

Silicone

Keloids: prevention and management

Comparison of Effectiveness of Silicone Gel Sheeting With Microporous Paper Tape in the Prevention of Hypertrophic Scarring in a Rabbit Model.

Are there any good treatments for keloid scarring after sternotomy.

Effects of combined intralesional 5-Fluorouracil and topical silicone in prevention of keloids: a double blind randomized clinical trial study.

The effects of topically applied silicone gel and its silver derivative on the prevention of hypertrophic scarring in two rabbit ear scarring models.

Promising results from a pilot study on compression treatment of ear keloids.

Clinical applications of basic research that shows reducing skin tension could prevent and treat abnormal scarring: the importance of fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures and flap surgery for keloid and hypertrophic scar reconstruction.

Management of chest keloids.

Use of silicone gel sheets for prevention of keloid scars after median sternotomy.

A diabetic foot ulcer pilot study: does silicone gel sheeting reduce the incidence of reulceration.

Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars.

Positive response of a recurrent keloid scar to topical methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy.

Phase 2 cross-over multicenter trial on the efficacy and safety of topical cyanoacrylates compared with topical silicone gel in the prevention of pathologic scars.

Medical and surgical management of keloids: a review.

Strategies for prevention of scars: what can we learn from fetal skin.

Acne scars: pathogenesis, classification and treatment.

Experience of silicone gel sheets for patients with keloid scars after median sternotomy.

Topical silicone gel versus placebo in promoting the maturation of burn scars: a randomized controlled trial.

The tensile reduction effects of silicone gel sheeting.

Case series: evaluation of a liquid silicone gel on scar appearance following excisional surgery–a pilot study.

Efficacy of topical cyanoacrylates compared to topical silicone gel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars.

Scar tissue.

Use of Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale for evaluation of facial scars treated with self-drying silicone gel.

Aesthetic effect of silicone gel on surgical scars in Asians.

A comparative study evaluating the tolerability and efficacy of two topical therapies for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

Occlusion regulates epidermal cytokine production and inhibits scar formation.

A randomized clinical trial to study the effect of silicone gel dressing and pressure therapy on posttraumatic hypertrophic scars.

Silicone-based scar therapy: a review of the literature.

Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis with reticulated scarring in a newborn: an innovative treatment using a silicone dressing.

Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids with an LBO laser (532 nm) and silicone gel sheeting.

The impact of silicone spray on scar formation. A single-center placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

JAAD online. Over-the-counter scar products for postsurgical patients: disparities between online advertised benefits and evidence regarding efficacy.

Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars.

Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

The use of silicone gel in the treatment of fresh surgical scars: a randomized study.

The use of pressure and silicone in hypertrophic scar management in burns patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Efficacy of a polyurethane dressing versus a soft silicone sheet on hypertrophic scars.

Hypertrophic scar model in the rabbit ear: a reproducible model for studying scar tissue behavior with new observations on silicone gel sheeting for scar reduction.

Clinical perspective on silicone dressings and wound management.

Effects of silicone gel on burn scars.

The role of the epidermis in the control of scarring: evidence for mechanism of action for silicone gel.

Morphological analysis of the connective tissue reaction in linear hypertrophic scars treated with intralesional steroid or silicone-gel sheeting. A light and electron microscopic study.

Keloid and hypertrophic scars: a review of recent developments in pathogenesis and management.

An open-label pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a silicone gel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars using clinical and ultrasound assessments.

A comparative clinical study of the treatment of hypertrophic scars with either intralaesional steroid or silicone gel sheeting.

Evolution of silicone therapy and mechanism of action in scar management.

A review of the biologic effects, clinical efficacy, and safety of silicone elastomer sheeting for hypertrophic and keloid scar treatment and management.

The efficacy of topical silicone gel elastomers in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloid scars, and post-laser exfoliation erythema.

Current methods of treatment and prevention of pathologic scars.

Nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars: evidence-based therapies, standard practices, and emerging methods.

A “silicone suture” technique aided to scalp reduction for the treatment of scarring alopecia.

Clinical evaluation of a new self-drying silicone gel in the treatment of scars: a preliminary report.

Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

A prospective randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of silicone gel sheeting (Cica-Care) on post-traumatic hypertrophic scar among the Chinese population.

Non-operative treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids after burns in children.

Influence of silicone on abnormal scarring.

Audit of reactions to topical silicon used in the management of hypertrophic scars.

Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of dermatix silicone gel in the reduction of scar elevation and pigmentation.

Evaluation of a self-adherent soft silicone dressing for the treatment of hypertrophic postoperative scars.

Treatment of acne scars with liquid silicone injections: 30-year perspective.

Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective clinical trial of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in median sternotomy wound.

Silicone occlusive sheeting vs silicone cushion for the treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars. A prospective-randomized study.

Topical scar modification: hype or help.

The efficacy of magnetic disks for the treatment of earlobe hypertrophic scar.

Hypertrophic and keloidal scars: an approach to polytherapy.

Silastic sheet integrated polymethylmetacrylate splint in addition to surgery for commissure contractures complicated with hypertrophic scar.

International clinical recommendations on scar management.

The effect of silicone gel on basic fibroblast growth factor levels in fibroblast cell culture.

Silicone gel sheets relieve pain and pruritus with clinical improvement of keloid: possible target of mast cells.

Keloid and hypertrophic scars.

Effects of enhanced patient education on compliance with silicone gel sheeting and burn scar outcome: a randomized prospective study.

Silicone sheet for treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scar: a new proposal for the mechanism of efficacy.

Silicone sheeting decreases fibroblast activity and downregulates TGFbeta2 in hypertrophic scar model.

The use of silicone gel for treating children’s burn scars in Saudi Arabia: a case study.

International clinical recommendations on scar management.

Topigel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars after burn injuries.

The effect of silicone gel sheets on perfusion of hypertrophic burn scars.

Biological effects of silicone gel sheeting.

Posttraumatic scar revision: a review and case presentation.

Effect of four treatment variants on the functional and cosmetic state of mature scars.

Silicone occlusive treatment of hypertrophic scar in the rabbit model.

Nonoperative techniques for scar management and revision.

Silicone versus nonsilicone gel dressings: a controlled trial.

Prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids by the prophylactic use of topical silicone gel sheets following a surgical procedure in an office setting.

Silicones in the rehabilitation of burns: a review and overview.

Silicone as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Topical revitalization of body skin.

Silicone gel sheeting.

New innovations in scar management.

The use of silicone gel sheeting in the management of hypertrophic and keloid scars.

Self-adhesive silicone gel sheet: a treatment for hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Silicone thermoplastic sheeting for treatment of facial scars: an improved technique.

Elemental composition changes between breast tissue with and without silicone gel sheeting and hypertrophic scar tissue.

Hypertrophic scars and keloids: which therapeutic options today.

Dynamics of wound healing after silicone device implantation.

Prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy of the 585-nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser and silicone gel sheeting in hypertrophic scar treatment.

Comparison of a silicone gel-filled cushion and silicone gel sheeting for the treatment of hypertrophic or keloid scars.

The use of silicone occlusive sheeting (Sil-K) and silicone occlusive gel (Epiderm) in the prevention of hypertrophic scar formation.

Use of a glycerin-based gel sheeting in scar management.

Static-electric field induction by a silicone cushion for the treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars.

Silicone gel sheeting for the management of hypertrophic and keloid scars: the mechanism of its action.

Effectiveness of silicone sheets in the prevention of hypertrophic breast scars.

Facial keloids. A 15-year experience.

Cytokine mRNA changes during the treatment of hypertrophic scars with silicone and nonsilicone gel dressings.

Effectiveness of silicone sheets in the prevention of hypertrophic breast scars.

A comparison of Sil-K and Epiderm in scar management.

Silicone cream occlusive dressing–a novel noninvasive regimen in the treatment of keloid.

Silicone gel sheeting for the prevention and management of evolving hypertrophic and keloid scars.

Topical silastic gel sheeting for treating and controlling hypertrophic and keloid scars: case study.

Symptomatic keloids in two children. Dramatic improvement with silicone cream occlusive dressing.

Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Silicone gel sheeting in scar therapy.

Evaluation of silicone-gel sheeting on early wound healing of linear incisions.

Cica-Care gel sheeting in the management of hypertrophic scarring.

Silicone gel treatment of extensive hypertrophic scarring following toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Silicone use in keloids.

A controlled clinical trial of topical silicone gel sheeting in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars with SILASTIC Gel Sheeting.

Experience with silastic gel sheeting in pediatric scarring.

Sense and nonsense of scar creams and gels.

Topical silicone gel sheeting in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. A dermatologic experience.

Silicone gel in the treatment of burn and prevention of hypertrophic scar.

Hypertrophic sternal scars: silicone gel sheet versus Kenalog injection treatment.

Beneficial effects of silicone cream on grafted skin.

The effect of sodium-hyaluronate on scar tissue formation under a subconjunctival silicone implant in the rabbit.

Topical silicone gel for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scar.

Treatment of scars and keloids with a cream containing silicone oil.

Why does topical silicone gel improve hypertrophic scars? A hypothesis.

Silicone gel in the treatment of keloids.

Topical silicone gel: a new treatment for hypertrophic scars.

Silicone gel appears inexplicably to flatten, lighten hypertrophic scars from burns.

Silicone gel in the treatment of keloid scars.

Silicone gel sheet tie-over for skin graft on the eyelid following release of scar contracture.

Effectiveness of silastic sheet coverage in the treatment of scar keloid (hypertrophic scar).

Silicone gel in scar treatment.

The use of plastic face mask and silicone gloves and boots as alternative to compression suits for treating hypertrophic scars.

Silicone gel: a new treatment for burn scars and contractures.

Flatten that scar.

Closed capsulotomy causing fractures of the scar capsule and the silicone bag of a breast implant. Case report.

Treatment of painful scars on soles and digits with injections of fluid silicone.

Liquid silicone injections to improve scars: is this a solution to the problem.

Silicone fluid and steroids in the prevention of adhesions.

SCARprin Review.

Dermatix: Does Dermatix Work

Talsyn CI: Does Talsyn CI Work.

Kelo-Cote: Does Kelo-Cote Work.

Prefer On: Does Prefer On Work.

Scar Esthetique: Does Scar Esthetique Work.

Scar Zone: Does Scar Zone Work.

Scar Fade: Does Scar Fade Work.

Cimeosil: Does Cimeosil Work.

Spenco 2nd Skin Scar Gel: Does Spenco 2nd Skin Scar Gel Work.

Silicone Scar Treatment| My Experience with Silicone for Scars.

Clinical Trials, Papers and Studies Involving the Effectiveness of Silicone Gel in Managing Scars.

Silicone – Stretch Marks

How to get Rid of Stretch Marks After Working Out.

Does Mederma Really Work for Stretch Marks.

Scars and Stretch Marks.

Creams to Remove Stretch Marks.

Stretch Mark Treatment.

How to Eliminate Stretch Marks & Scars.

Topical revitalization of body skin.

General Corticosteroids

Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with inhaled corticosteroids.

Topical corticosteroids applied with a squirt system are more effective than a nasal spray for steroid-dependent olfactory impairment.

Pressure-pulsed inhalation corticosteroid therapy in olfactory disorders: how we do it.

Are there any good treatments for keloid scarring after sternotomy

Clinical applications of basic research that shows reducing skin tension could prevent and treat abnormal scarring: the importance of fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures and flap surgery for keloid and hypertrophic scar reconstruction

Hypertrophic scar in a dog: histological and clinical features

595nm pulsed dye laser combined with intralesional corticosteroids in hypertrophic symptomatic scars following breast reduction surgery

Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars

Management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Phase 2 cross-over multicenter trial on the efficacy and safety of topical cyanoacrylates compared with topical silicone gel in the prevention of pathologic scars

The cost effectiveness of intralesional steroid therapy for keloids

The effect of combined steroid and calcium channel blocker injection on human hypertrophic scars in animal model: a new strategy for the treatment of hypertrophic scars

Medical and surgical management of keloids: a review

Perioperative conditions affect long-term hypertrophic scar formation

Surgical excision and immediate postoperative radiotherapy versus cryotherapy and intralesional steroids in the management of keloids: a prospective clinical trial

Scar tissue

A comparative study evaluating the tolerability and efficacy of two topical therapies for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

Letter: further options for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

The role of full-thickness skin grafting and steroid injection in the treatment of auricular keloids

The most current algorithms for the treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids

A review of the effectiveness of antimitotic drug injections for hypertrophic scars and keloids

Auricular keloids: treatment and results

Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars

Efficacy of intralesional 5-fluorouracil and triamcinolone in the treatment of keloids

Successful treatment of earlobe keloids in the pediatric population

Intralesional triamcinolone alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars

An open, randomized, controlled, comparative study of the combined effect of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and onion extract gel and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide alone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Comparison of intralesional verapamil with intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Evaluating the tolerability and efficacy of etanercept compared to triamcinolone acetonide for the intralesional treatment of keloids

Morphological analysis of the connective tissue reaction in linear hypertrophic scars treated with intralesional steroid or silicone-gel sheeting. A light and electron microscopic study

The use of corticosteroids to treat keloids: a review

Poiseuille’s law and large-bore needles: insights into the delivery of corticosteroid injections in the treatment of keloids

Effects of interferon-alpha2b on keloid treatment with triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection

Treatment of postdermabrasion facial hypertrophic and keloid scars with intralesional 5-Fluorouracil injections

Role of liquid nitrogen alone compared with combination of liquid nitrogen and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide in treatment of small keloids

A comparative clinical study of the treatment of hypertrophic scars with either intralaesional steroid or silicone gel sheeting

A review of the biologic effects, clinical efficacy, and safety of silicone elastomer sheeting for hypertrophic and keloid scar treatment and management

Current methods of treatment and prevention of pathologic scars

Head and neck keloid: treatment by core excision and delayed intralesional injection of steroid

Current use of steroids in management of abnormal raised skin scars

Betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions

New combination of triamcinolone, 5-Fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser for treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars

Safety and efficacy of local administration of contractubex to hypertrophic scars in comparison to corticosteroid treatment. Results of a multicenter, comparative epidemiological cohort study in Germany

Combined therapy in the treatment of auricular keloids

New technique for injecting corticosteroid in keloids scarring

Long-term outcome of intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of keloid scars in Asian patients

Keloid pathogenesis and treatment

Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

An open label study of clobetasol propionate 0.05% and betamethasone valerate 0.12% foams in the treatment of mild to moderate acne keloidalis

Hypertrophic and keloidal scars: an approach to polytherapy

The effects of mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil/triamcinolone on fibrosis/scar tissue formation secondary to subglottic trauma (experimental study)

Successful management of vulvar adhesions with potent topical corticosteroids: a case report

Medical and surgical therapies for keloids.

Intralesional 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloid scars

Dietary compounds inhibit proliferation and contraction of keloid and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts in vitro: therapeutic implication for excessive scarring

Hypertrophic scars and keloids: etiology and management

Laser scar revision: comparison study of 585-nm pulsed dye laser with and without intralesional corticosteroids

A comparison of the combined effect of cryotherapy and corticosteroid injections versus corticosteroids and cryotherapy alone on keloids: a controlled study

Treatment response of keloidal and hypertrophic sternotomy scars: comparison among intralesional corticosteroid, 5-fluorouracil, and 585-nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser treatments

Treatment of scars by steroid injections

Nonoperative techniques for scar management and revision

Scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids

Experience with difficult keloids

Treatment of keloid scars with pulsed dye laser and intralesional steroid

Keloids and hypertrophic scars: results with intraoperative and serial postoperative corticosteroid injection therapy

Treatment of inflamed hypertrophic scars using intralesional 5-FU

The treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Hypertrophic scars and keloids

Acute and chronic animal models for excessive dermal scarring: quantitative studies

Aetiology and management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Effect of injection of triamcinolone on type 1 procollagen and fibronectin in scar tissue

Prevention of earlobe keloid recurrence with postoperative corticosteroid injections versus radiation therapy: a randomized, prospective study and review of the literature

Treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars

A comparison of intralesional triamcinolone and cryosurgery in the treatment of acne keloids

Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Pilot study with intralesional Lipotalon injections

Keloids and hypertrophic scars

Scars and keloids

Intra- and postoperative steroid injections for keloids and hypertrophic scars

Topical corticosteroids. Which drug and when

Cortisone jet injection as therapy of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Treatment methods of keloid and hypertrophic scar formation

Evaluation of the effect of topical steroids on human scar contracture using a nude mouse model

Treatment of keloids by single intraoperative perilesional injection of repository steroid

Conservative therapy of scars and wrinkles

A protocol for the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

Clinico-pathological evaluation of keloids treated with intralesional injections of corticoid

Prevention of hypertrophic scarring

Dose-dependent effects of short-term methylprednisolone on myocardial infarct extent, scar formation, and ventricular function

Treatment of keloid scars by combined cryosurgery and intralesional corticosteroids

Facial keloids and their management

The valve of prednisone in the prevention of scarring after vasovasostomy

Betamethasone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars

Combined modalities in the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids

The combined use of cryosurgery and intralesional injections of suspensions of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids for reducing keloids and hypertrophic scars

Treatment of keloids and some skin diseases with topical injections of triamcinolone

The place of intralesional steroid therapy in dermatology

Healing of surgical wounds of the skin of rats after topical application of hydrocortisone, prednisolone and triamcinolone in identical concentrations and associated with an antibiotic

Treatment of cheloids and cheloid scars with intralesional corticoid injections

Use of corticoids in local treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids in children

Silicone fluid and steroids in the prevention of adhesions

The action of fluocinolone acetonide upon scar tissue formation

The treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars by corticosteroids

Pharmacodynamic effect of a preparation of cartilage on scar formation in normal experimental wounds and in scar formation delayed by cortisone

Decreased scar formation with topical corticosteroid treatment

The treatment of hyposmia with intranasal steroids.

General Corticosteroids – Stretch Marks

Aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists modulate elastin and collagen deposition in human skin

Ulceration of Striae distensae in high-grade glioma patients on concurrent systemic corticosteroid and bevacizumab therapy

Elastotic striae associated with striae distensae after application of very potent topical corticosteroids

Treatment outcome using prednisone in corticosteroid-responsive primary nephrotic syndrome in children

Cosmetic use of skin depigmentation products in Africa

Extensive striae distensae as a result of topical corticosteroid therapy in psoriasis vulgaris

A case of edematous striae distensae in lupus nephritis

Effects of mometasone furoate on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro

Loratadine

How to Treat Raised Scars Under the Eyelash Line.

Montelukast

The efficacy and tolerability of inhaled montelukast plus inhaled mometasone compared with mometasone alone in patients with chronic asthma.

A phase I randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-exploration study of single-dose inhaled montelukast in patients with chronic asthma.

Inhaled montelukast inhibits cysteinyl-leukotriene-induced bronchoconstriction in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs: the potential as a new asthma medication.

Betamethasone

Local steroid treatment of allergic diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

Structure-activity relationships of topically active steroids: the selection of fluticasone propionate.

Other anti-inflammatory uses of intranasal corticosteroids in upper respiratory inflammatory diseases.

Fluticasone

The effect of intranasal fluticasone propionate irrigations on salivary cortisol, intraocular pressure, and posterior subcapsular cataracts in postsurgical chronic rhinosinusitis patients.

A randomized double-blind study to compare the effects of nasal fluticasone and betamethasone on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and bone turnover in patients with nasal polyposis.

Fluticasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

The effect of topical fluticasone on nasal nitric oxide levels in a patient with allergic rhinitis.

Episodic viral wheeze in preschool children: effect of topical nasal corticosteroid prophylaxis.

The pharmacological basis for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis with topical corticosteroids.

Randomized trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in chronic stable pulmonary sarcoidosis: a pilot study.

Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy wholly abated with one week twice daily application of fluticasone propionate lotion: A case report and review of the literature

Fluticasone (Flonase®).

Fluticasone topical (Rx).

Fluticasone Propionate.

Other anti-inflammatory uses of intranasal corticosteroids in upper respiratory inflammatory diseases.

Additional Articles

Metoclopramide

ABHR Gel in the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Hospice Patient.

Intranasal metoclopramide.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

The effectiveness of combined oral lysine acetylsalicylate and metoclopramide (Migpriv) in the treatment of migraine attacks. Comparison with placebo and oral sumatriptan.

Pilocarpine

Preparation and evaluation of solid dispersions of pilocarpine hydrochloride for alleviation of xerostomia.

An investigation into the use of pilocarpine as a sialagogue in patients with radiation induced xerostomia.

Pilocarpine HCl 2-mg Troches.

Pilocarpine tablets for the treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, multicenter trial. P92-01 Study Group.

Scopolamine

Reduction of salivary flow with transdermal scopolamine: a four-year experience.

Scopolamine: new preparations. Reference treatment for death rattle.

The use of transdermal scopolamine to control drooling. A case report.

Secretin

Secretin: hypothalamic distribution and hypothesized neuroregulatory role in autism.

Short chain fatty acids

Evaluation of short-chain fatty acid enemas: treatment of radiation proctitis.

Short chain fatty acids are effective in short-term treatment of chronic radiation proctitis: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

Sildenafil

Beneficial effect of oral sildenafil therapy on childhood pulmonary arterial hypertension: twelve-month clinical trial of a single-drug, open-label, pilot study.

Extemporaneous sildenafil citrate oral suspensions for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children.

Sublingual sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: faster onset of action with less dose.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl

Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study.

Tranexamic acid

Hemostatic effect of tranexamic acid in elective nasal surgery.

Prevention of postsurgical bleeding in oral surgery using tranexamic acid without dose modification of oral anticoagulants.