Practitioner Resources: Pain-Focused

Information Regarding Drug Usage – Links to Abstracts and Research Articles

ABHR

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy- induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Tolerability of the compound ABHR in hospice patients.

Acetaminophen/Codeine

Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients.

Acetic acid

Management of heel pain syndrome with acetic acid iontophoresis.

Amitriptyline

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical amitriptyline in healthy volunteers.

Evaluation of the effect of locally administered amitriptyline gel as adjunct to local anesthetics in irreversible pulpitis pain.

Topical amitriptyline combined with topical ketamine for the management of recalcitrant localized pruritus: a retrospective pilot study.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for treatment of rectal, genital, and perineal pain and discomfort.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Combination gel of 1% amitriptyline and 0.5% ketamine to treat refractory erythromelalgia pain: a new treatment option?

Peripheral antinociceptive actions of desipramine and fluoxetine in an inflammatory and neuropathic pain test in the rat.

Use of transdermal amitriptyline gel in a patient with chronic pain and depression.

Topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and lidocaine in neuropathic pain caused by radiation skin reaction: a pilot study.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical amitriptyline combined with ketamine for the treatment of erythromelalgia: a retrospective study of 36 patients at Mayo Clinic.

A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Baclofen

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Permeation and systemic absorption of R- and S-baclofen across the nasal mucosa.

Effects of topical baclofen on C fibre-evoked neuronal activity in the rat dorsal horn.

Novel Vesicular Approach For Topical Delivery of Baclofen Via Niosomes.

Bupivicaine

Topical bupivacaine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine for post-tonsillectomy pain relief in children: a randomized controlled study.

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine 5, 10 and 20 μg/h transdermal patch: a review of its use in the management of chronic non-malignant pain.

Efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) for chronic moderate to severe low back pain: a randomized, double-blind study.

Transdermal buprenorphine plus oral paracetamol vs an oral codeine-paracetamol combination for osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee: a randomised trial.

Clinical update on the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine.

Efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 289 patients with severe cancer pain.

Is there a ceiling effect of transdermal buprenorphine? Preliminary data in cancer patients.

Butorphanol

Bioavailability of intranasal butorphanol administered from a single-dose sprayer.

The efficacy and safety of transnasal butorphanol for postoperative pain control following lower laparoscopic surgery.

Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate administered from single-dose intranasal sprayer.

Capsaicin

Intranasal capsaicin reduces nasal hyperreactivity in idiopathic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized application regimen study.

Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial.

The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa.

Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Carbamazepine

Design and in vitro evaluation of a novel vaginal drug delivery system based on gelucire.

Thermally reversible in situ gelling carbamazepine liquid suppository.

Carbamazepine uptake into rat brain following intra-olfactory transport.

Nasal administration of carbamazepine using chitosan microspheres: in vitro/in vivo studies.

Rectal doxepin and carbamazepine therapy in patients with cancer.

Rectal administration of carbamazepine gel.

Bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine mixture.

Rectal administration of carbamazepine suspension.

Celecoxib

Preparation and evaluation of celecoxib transdermal patches.

Development and evaluation of transdermal patches of celecoxib.

Reduction of scar formation in full-thickness wounds with topical celecoxib treatment.

Preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal matrix films of celecoxib.
Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica. 53(1): p 67-76. 2011. IPA Accession Number: 48-13419

Preparation, charactarization and anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib chitosan gel formulations.

In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.

Clonazepam

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Topical clonazepam in stomatodynia: a randomised placebo-controlled study.

Cyclobenzaprine

Pharmacological approaches other than opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management.

Gel relieves arthritis pain.
American Druggist. 215(May): p 56. 1998. IPA Accession Number: 35-10714.

Dextromethorphan

Efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine at two dosage levels for diabetic neuropathic pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

Diazepam

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Diclofenac

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: The Importance of Drug, Delivery, and Therapeutic Outcome.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

The efficacy and safety of low-dose diclofenac sodium 0.1% gel for the symptomatic relief of pain and erythema associated with superficial natural sunburn.

An open-label, long-term safety and tolerability trial of diclofenac sodium 1% gel in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide compared with placebo for the treatment of osteoarthritis: pooled safety results.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in minor soft tissue injury.

Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury.

Gastrointestinal tolerability of diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3%: a pooled analysis of 14 clinical studies.

A comparative subjective assessment study of PENNSAID® and Voltaren Gel®, two topical formulations of diclofenac sodium.

Safety profile of topical diclofenac: a meta-analysis of blinded, randomized, controlled trials in musculoskeletal conditions.

Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium gel for knee osteoarthritis in elderly and younger patients: pooled data from three randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials.

Diclofenac epolamine plus heparin plaster versus diclofenac epolamine plaster in mild to moderate ankle sprain: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial.

A long-term, open-label study to confirm the safety of topical diclofenac solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of the osteoarthritic knee.

Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers.

Topical diclofenac solution.

Randomized controlled trial of diclofenac sodium gel in knee osteoarthritis.

Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.

Diclofenac epolamine (Flector) patch: evidence for topical activity.

Randomized clinical comparisons of diclofenac concentration in the soft tissues and blood plasma between topical and oral applications.

Review of the pharmaceutical properties and clinical effects of the topical NSAID formulation, diclofenac epolamine.

Tolerability of Topical Diclofenac Sodium 1% Gel for Osteoarthritis in Seniors and Patients With Comorbidities.

Comparative In Vitro Transmucosal Permeation of Three Proprietary Diclofenac Gels.

A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

Doxepin

Oral Doxepin Rinse: The Analgesic Effect and Duration of Pain Reduction in Patients with Oral Mucositis Due to Cancer Therapy.

Doxepin HCl

Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Etodolac

Pharmacokinetic study of etodolac after rectal administration; “in vitro” release kinetics.

Felbamate

Rectal administration of felbamate in a child with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Fentanyl

New formulations of fentanyl for acute pain management.

Intranasal fentanyl for analgesia in the paediatric emergency department.

Formulation issues associated with transdermal fentanyl delivery.

Pharmacokinetics of intranasal fentanyl spray in patients with cancer and breakthrough pain.

Does the standard intravenous solution of fentanyl (50 microg/mL) administered intranasally have analgesic efficacy?

Pharmacokinetic comparisons of three nasal fentanyl formulations; pectin, chitosan and chitosan-poloxamer 188.

Bioequivalence following buccal and sublingual placement of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy subjects.

Effect of buccal dwell time on the pharmacokinetic profile of fentanyl buccal tablet.

Absorption of fentanyl from fentanyl buccal tablet in cancer patients with or without oral mucositis: a pilot study.

Flurbiprofen

Effect of olive oil on transdermal penetration of flurbiprofen from topical gel as enhancer.

Effects of solid carriers on the crystalline properties, dissolution and bioavailability of flurbiprofen in solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (solid SNEDDS).

Potential use of nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery of flurbiprofen.

Effect of counter-ions and penetration enhancers on the skin permeation of flurbiprofen.

Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.

Improvement in bioavailability of transdermally applied flurbiprofen using tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and turpentine oil.

Formulation and evaluation of flurbiprofen microemulsion.

Characterization of the transdermal transport of flurbiprofen and indomethacin.

In Vitro/In Vivo Assessment of Flurbiprofen-Matrix Type Transdermal Delivery System.

Formulation and evaluation of flurbiprofen microemulsion.

Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.

Flurbiprofen in gel: study of acceptability, tolerability and evaluation of its allergenic potential.

Intracrevicular application of 0.3% Flurbiprofen gel and 0.3% Triclosan gel as anti inflammatory agent. A comparative clinical study.

In vitro release studies of flurbiprofen from different topical formulations.

Topical Delivery of Flurbiprofen from Pluronic Lecithin Organogel.

Gabapentin

Adjuvant analgesics.

Evaluation of gabapentin in the treatment of generalized vulvodynia, unprovoked.

Spermine modulation of specific [3H]-gabapentin binding to the detergent-solubilized porcine cerebral cortex alpha 2 delta calcium channel subunit.

Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia.

Topical analgesic combinations for bortezomib neuropathy.

Recent advances in the pharmacological management of pain.

Skin involvement in zoster.

A case of rheumatoid arthritis presenting with postherpetic neuralgia and abdominal-wall pseudohernia.

Extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement for abdominal wall contour abnormalities following TRAM flap.

Topical gel for neuropathic pain.
U.S. Pharmacist. 27(10): p 84-86. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 40-05316

Haloperidol

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Hydromorphone

A multicenter, open-label, exploratory dose-ranging trial of intranasal hydromorphone for managing acute pain from traumatic injury.

A multiple-dose phase I study of intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers.

Ibuprofen

Antifungal activity of ibuprofen alone and in combination with fluconazole against Candida species.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and admission to hospital for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation: a record linkage case-control study.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

The effect of formulation vehicles on the in vitro percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen.

Optimisation of cosolvent concentration for topical drug delivery III–influence of lipophilic vehicles on ibuprofen permeation.

Ibuprofen transdermal ethosomal gel: characterization and efficiency in animal models.

Oral versus topical Ibuprofen for chronic knee pain: a prospective randomized pilot study.

Effects of ibuprofen topical gel on muscle soreness.

Optimisation of cosolvent concentration for topical drug delivery – II: influence of propylene glycol on ibuprofen permeation.

Development and Evaluation of Ibuprofen Transdermal Gel Formulations.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 9(4): p 355-363. 2010. IPA Accession Number: 47-17303

Indomethacin

Microemulsion: a novel transdermal delivery system to facilitate skin penetration of indomethacin.

Assessment of the percutaneous penetration of indomethacin from soybean oil microemulsion: effects of the HLB value of mixed surfactants.

Physicochemical performances of indomethacin in cholesteryl cetyl carbonate liquid crystal as a transdermal dosage.

Efficacy of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine versus sumatriptan in acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a multicenter, randomized, crossover trial.

Ketamine

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Ketamine mouthwash for mucositis pain.

Reduction of allodynia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of topical ketamine.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical ketamine treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal Lidocaine and Ketamine for Neuropathic Pain: A Study of Effectiveness and Tolerability.

Recent advances in postoperative pain management.

Ketamine: an introduction for the pain and palliative medicine physician.

Ketamine as an analgesic: parenteral, oral, rectal, subcutaneous, transdermal and intranasal administration.

Topical ketamine treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal ketamine as an adjuvant for postoperative analgesia after abdominal gynecological surgery using lidocaine epidural blockade.

Mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain.

Topical ketamine and morphine for post-tonsillectomy pain.

Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study.

Topical ketamine gel: possible role in treating neuropathic pain.

Topical ketamine in the treatment of mucositis pain.

Topical ketamine cream in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind initial study.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Topical amitriptyline combined with ketamine for the treatment of erythromelalgia: a retrospective study of 36 patients at Mayo Clinic.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for the treatment of brachioradial pruritus.

Topical amitriptyline-ketamine for treatment of rectal, genital, and perineal pain and discomfort.

A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Ketoprofen

Ketoprofen absorption by muscle and tendon after topical or oral administration in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Ketoprofen gel as an adjunct to physical therapist management of a child with Sever disease.

Management of uncomplicated ankle sprains with topical or oral ketoprofen treatment. A registry study.

New therapeutic approaches for management of sport-induced muscle strains.

Percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen from different anatomical sites in man.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and admission to hospital for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation: a record linkage case-control study.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles on percutaneous delivery of spantide II and ketoprofen.

Physical characteristics, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy of the ketoprofen patch: a new patch formulation.

Efficacy and safety of ketoprofen patch in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Physicochemical studies of binary eutectic of ibuprofen and ketoprofen for enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion for topical delivery.

Pre-treatment with Aloe vera juice does not enhance the in vitro permeation of ketoprofen across skin.

Topical ketoprofen TDS patch versus diclofenac gel: efficacy and tolerability in benign sport related soft-tissue injuries.

Topical ketoprofen patch.

Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in rabbit after a single topical application.

In vitro release and antiinflammatory activity of topical formulations of ketoprofen.

Topical treatment of soft tissue rheumatism and athletic injuries. Effectiveness and tolerance of a new ketoprofen gel.

Ketoprofen 2.5% gel versus placebo gel in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries.

Percutaneous treatment of acute soft tissue lesions with naproxen gel and ketoprofen gel.

Ketoprofen vs etofenamate in a controlled double-blind study: evidence of topical effectiveness in soft tissue rheumatic pain.

Compounding of a topical drug with prospective natural surfactant-stabilized pharmaceutical bases: Physicochemical and in vitro/in vivo characterization – A ketoprofen case study.

Addition of UVA-absorber butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane to topical ketoprofen formulation reduces ketoprofen-photoallergic reaction.

Itra-articular absorption and distribution of ketoprofen after topical plaster application and oral intake in 100 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.

Ketorolac

SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) nasal spray: a novel nonopioid alternative for managing moderate to moderately severe dental pain.

Development and characterization of mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery of ketorolac.

A novel formulation of ketorolac tromethamine for intranasal administration: preclinical safety evaluation.

Ketorolac trometamol topical formulations: release behaviour, physical characterization, skin permeation, efficacy and gastric safety.

Preparation and characterization of spray-dried mucoadhesive microspheres of ketorolac for nasal administration.

Intranasal ketorolac: for short-term pain management.

The pharmacokinetics of ketorolac after single postoperative intranasal administration in adolescent patients.

Lamotrigine

Relative bioavailability of lamotrigine chewable dispersible tablets administered rectally.

Rectal absorption of lamotrigine compressed tablets.

Off-Label Drug Uses – Lamotrigine: Rectal administration.
Hospital Pharmacy. 37(7): p 722,725-726. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 39-16699

Lidocaine

Efficacy of treatment to relieve mucositis-induced discomfort.

Lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine gel versus tetracaine adrenaline cocaine gel for topical anesthesia in linear scalp and facial lacerations in children aged 5 to 17 years.

Lidocaine lollipop as single-agent anesthesia in upper GI endoscopy.

Misoprostol 0.001% and Lidocaine 0.5% Oral Rinse.

Misoprostol 0.0024% and Lidocaine 1% in Glycerin Mouth Paint.

Survey of topical oral solutions for the treatment of chemo-induced oral mucositis.

Temporomandibular joint iontophoresis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

The analgesic effect of a metered-dose 8% lidocaine pump spray in posttraumatic peripheral neuropathy: a pilot study.

Transdermal Lidocaine and Ketamine for Neuropathic Pain: A Study of Effectiveness and Tolerability.

Quantitative and selective evaluation of differential sensory nerve block after transdermal lidocaine.

Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus tetracaine gel for procedural pain in children.

Topical lignocaine gel for split-thickness skin graft donor-site pain management.

Topical lidocaine gel relieves postherpetic neuralgia.

Transdermal application of 10% lidocaine-gel for management of pain associated with herpes zoster.

Antihyperalgesic efficacy of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in capsaicin and sunburn pain models–two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials in healthy volunteers.

Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

5% lidocaine-medicated plaster vs other relevant interventions and placebo for post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN): a systematic review.

Safety and efficacy of a rapid-acting topical 4% lidocaine gel in a unique drug delivery system.

Using lidocaine as an additional topical local anesthetic agent in gynecological procedures.

Comparing healthcare costs of Medicaid patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) treated with lidocaine patch 5% versus gabapentin or pregabalin.

Post-herpetic neuralgia: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, pregabalin, or a combination of both? A randomized, open, clinical effectiveness study.

Comparison of cutaneous anesthetic effect of 8% lidocaine spray with lidocaine patch using current perception threshold test.

Lidocaine eye drops attenuate pain associated with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia.

Reducing the flavour of oral lidocaine: randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of mint-flavoured mouthwash.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

Lidocaine 5% medicated plaster: a review of its use in postherpetic neuralgia.

Single-layer transdermal film containing lidocaine: modulation of drug release.

Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

A comparison of the lidocaine patch 5% vs naproxen 500 mg twice daily for the relief of pain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: a 6-week, randomized, parallel-group study.

An alternative lidocaine hydrochloride liposomal gel formulation: preparation, percutaneous permeation, and release kinetics.

Safety of occluded 4% liposomal lidocaine cream.

Development of lidocaine gels for enhanced local anesthetic action.

Warm steaming enhances the topical anesthetic effect of lidocaine.

Fractional lasers in dermatology–current status and recommendations.

Our experiences in chronic benign pain by injecting local anesthetic into scars.

Effect of lidocaine tape on pain during intra-lesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of keloid.

Remodelling of keloid tissue into normal-looking skin.

Synthetic therapy for keloid in aural region.

ArteFill: a permanent skin filler.

Pain-free intralesional injection of triamcinolone for the treatment of keloid.

An approach to management of keloids.

Current concepts in the management of keloids.

Comparison of a topical mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) versus 1% lidocaine infiltration on wound healing.

Topical gel for neuropathic pain.
U.S. Pharmacist. 27(10): p 84-86. 2002. IPA Accession Number: 40-05316

Lorazepam

ABHR Gel in the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Hospice Patient.

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Lorazepam, diphenhydramine, and haloperidol transdermal gel for rescue from chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: results of two pilot trials.

Oral combination antiemetics in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving cisplatin or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin.

Meloxicam

Meloxicam β-cyclodextrin transdermal gel: physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution and diffusion studies.

Formulation of meloxicam gel for topical application: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Design, Characterization, and Evaluation of Meloxicam Gel Prepared by Suspension and Solution Polymerization Using Solubility Parameter as the Basis for Development.

Methadone

Evaluation of methadone absorption after topical administration to hospice patients.

Use of sublingual methadone for treating pain of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

Analgesic effects of topical methadone: a report of four cases.

Midazolam

Community use of intranasal midazolam for managing prolonged seizures.

Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

Intranasal midazolam therapy for pediatric status epilepticus.

Misoprostol

A prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded pilot study of misoprostol rectal suppositories in the prevention of acute and chronic radiation proctitis symptoms in prostate cancer patients.

Misoprostol 0.001% and Lidocaine 0.5% Oral Rinse.

Misoprostol 0.0024% and Lidocaine 1% in Glycerin Mouth Paint.

Misoprostol 0.0027% Mucoadhesive Powder.

Morphine

Effect of topical morphine for mucositis-associated pain following concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma.

Oral morphine as symptomatic treatment of dyspnoea in patients with advanced cancer.

Peripheral opioids in inflammatory pain.

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea.

The bioavailability of morphine applied topically to cutaneous ulcers.

Effect of topical morphine (mouthwash) on oral pain due to chemotherapy- and/or radiotherapy-induced mucositis: a randomized double-blinded study.

Pain-relieving properties of topically applied morphine on arterial leg ulcers: a pilot study.

The analgesic efficacy and safety of a novel intranasal morphine formulation (morphine plus chitosan), immediate release oral morphine, intravenous morphine, and placebo in a postsurgical dental pain model.

Morphine bioavailability from a topical gel formulation in volunteers.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of morphine-chitosan nasal solution in patients with moderate to severe pain following orthopedic surgery.

A randomised controlled trial to test the analgesic efficacy of topical morphine on minor superficial and partial thickness burns in accident and emergency departments.

Chronic arthritis pain management with topical morphine: case series.

Morphine in intrasite gel applied topically to painful ulcers.

Naproxen

Preparation of high solubilizable microemulsion of naproxen and its solubilization mechanism.

Evaluation of glycofurol-based gel as a new vehicle for topical application of naproxen.

Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of naproxen from different liposomal formulations.

Evaluation of skin permeation and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of new naproxen microemulsion formulations.

Evaluation of Glycofurol-Based Gel as a New Vehicle for Topical Application of Naproxen.

Oxcarbazepine

Relative bioavailability, metabolism and tolerability of rectally administered oxcarbazepine suspension.

Oxycodone

A randomised controlled trial with prolonged-release oral oxycodone and naloxone to prevent and reverse opioid-induced constipation.

Phenobarbital

Brain penetration and anticonvulsant efficacy of intranasal phenobarbital in rats.

Relative bioavailability of rectally administered phenobarbital sodium parenteral solution.

Transdermal delivery of Phenobarbital: Preformulation studies.

Phenytoin

The effect of systemic and local irradiation on wound macrophages and the repair promoting action of phenytoin sodium.

Phenytoin in wound healing.

Role of phenytoin in wound healing–a wound pharmacology perspective.

Topical phenytoin in diabetic foot ulcers.

Topical phenytoin in the treatment of split-thickness skin autograft donor sites: a comparative study with polyurethane membrane drape and conventional dressing.

Topical phenytoin in wound healing.

Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly.

The effect of topical phenytoin on healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled trial.

The use of topical phenytoin for healing of chronic venous ulcerations.

Effect of topical phenytoin on burn wound healing in rats.

Two percent topical phenytoin sodium solution in treating pyoderma gangrenosum: a cohort study.

Assessment of the effect of phenytoin on cutaneous healing from excision of melanocytic nevi on the face and on the back.

The impact of topical phenytoin on recalcitrant neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration.

Topical phenytoin solution for treating pressure ulcers: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

The clinical effect of topical phenytoin on wound healing: a systematic review.

Topical diphenylhydantoin sodium can improve healing in a diabetic incisional animal wound model.

Wound bed preparation with 10-percent phenytoin ointment increases the take of split-thickness skin graft in large diabetic ulcers.

A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers [ISRCTN33429693].

Topical phenytoin suspension and normal saline in the treatment of leprosy trophic ulcers: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

Topical phenytoin for wound healing.

Phenytoin in cutaneous medicine: its uses, mechanisms and side effects.

Topical phenytoin versus EUSOL in the treatment of non-malignant chronic leg ulcers.

A comparison of topical Phenytoin with Silverex in the treatment of superficial dermal burn wounds.

Topical phenytoin in diabetic ulcers: a double blind controlled trial.

Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly.

Absorption of phenytoin from rectal suppositories formulated with a polyethylene glycol base.

Absorption of rectally administered phenytoin: a pilot study.

Role of phenytoin in wound healing–a wound pharmacology perspective.

Phenytoin in wound healing.

Systemic absorption of topical phenytoin sodium.

Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study.

Lidocaine hydrochloride 2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 2% topical wound powder.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(4): p 298. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-01070

Metronidazole 2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 5% topical gel.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(4): p 299. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-00408

Case report: Topical gel for the treatment of a refractory leg ulcer.

Piroxicam

A clinical comparison of topical piroxicam and EMLA cream for pain relief and inflammation in laser hair removal.

Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Promotion of second intention wound healing by emu oil lotion: comparative results with furasin, polysporin, and cortisone.

A pilot double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial of topical virgin olive oil versus piroxicam gel in osteoarthritis of the knee.

Evaluation of proniosomes as an alternative strategy to optimize piroxicam transdermal delivery.

Topical absorption of piroxicam from organogels–in vitro and in vivo correlations.

Transdermal delivery of piroxicam using microemulsions.

Suprascapular nerve block or a piroxicam patch for shoulder tip pain after day case laparoscopic surgery.

Transdermal lontophoresis and skin retention of piroxicam from gels containing piroxicam: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes.

In vitro based index of topical anti-inflammatory activity to compare a series of NSAIDs.

A clinical evaluation of flurbiprofen LAT and piroxicam gel: a multicentre study in general practice.

Plasma and cutaneous drug levels after topical application of piroxicam gel: a study in healthy volunteers.

Piroxicam 0.5% topical gel compared to placebo in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries: a double-blind study comparing efficacy and safety.

Effect of piroxicam gel for pain control and inflammation in Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser hair removal.

Transbuccal permeation, anti-inflammatory activity and clinical efficacy of piroxicam formulated in different gels.

Piroxicam gel, compared to EMLA cream is associated with less pain after venous cannulation in volunteers.

Prilocaine

Fractional lasers in dermatology–current status and recommendations

Safe and less painful injection of triamcinolone acetonide into a keloid–a technique

Comparison of a topical mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) versus 1% lidocaine infiltration on wound healing

The influence of a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine on minor surgical procedures: a randomized controlled double-blind trial.

Prochlorperazine

Efficacy of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine versus sumatriptan in acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a multicenter, randomized, crossover trial.

Quinidine

Efficacy and safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine at two dosage levels for diabetic neuropathic pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

Topiramate

Relative bioavailability of topiramate administered rectally.

Valproic Acid

Chronopharmacokinetic study of valproic acid in man: comparison of oral and rectal administration.

Percutaneous absorption of valproic acid and its plasma concentration after application of ointment.

Zonisamide

Utility of a rectal suppository containing the antiepileptic drug zonisamide.

Gentamicin sulfate 0.2%, misoprostol 0.0024% and phenytoin 5% topical gel.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compound. 8(6): p 472. 2004. IPA Accession Number: 42-03369

General Pain

In vitro and In vivo Percutaneous Absorption of Topical Dosage Forms: Case Studies. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2005.

Intestinal toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Topical NSAIDs for Acute Pain: A Meta-Analysis.

Topical treatment of neuropathic pain.

Five compounds for treating diabetes related conditions.

Topical and Peripherally Acting Analgesics.

Transdermal gel in the treatment of postoperative pain.

Topical therapy for osteoarthritis: clinical and pharmacologic perspectives.

Efficacy and safety of a topical diclofenac solution in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle controlled clinical trial.

A multiple-dose, open-label, safety, compliance, and usage evaluation study of epicutaneously applied Diractin (ketoprofen in Transfersome) in joint/musculoskeletal pain or soft tissue inflammation.

Topical gabapentin in the treatment of localized and generalized vulvodynia.

A clinical comparison of topical piroxicam and EMLA cream in pain relief and inflammation in laser hair removal.

Topical or oral ibuprofen for chronic knee pain in older people. The TOIB study.

Use of topical medication in orofacial neuropathic pain: a retrospective study.

Effective use of topical amitriptyline hydrochloride 2.5% and ketamine hydrochloride 0.5% for analgesia in refractory proctodynia.

Analgesic synergy between topical opioids and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the mouse model of thermal pain.

Topical diclofenac and its role in pain and inflammation: an evidence-based review.

Topical treatments for pain.

The use of topical opioids to relieve pressure ulcer pain.

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.

Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

Rectal administration of antiepileptic drugs in children.

Rectal anticonvulsants in pediatric practice.

Systematic review of the role of alternative application routes for opioid treatment for moderate to severe cancer pain: an EPCRC opioid guidelines project.

Transdermal opioids as front line treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain: a systemic review.

Should topical opioid analgesics be regarded as effective and safe when applied to chronic cutaneous lesions?

Topical anesthetic creams.

Predictors of topical anesthetic effectiveness in children.

Do topical analgesics reduce pain associated with wound dressing changes or debridement of chronic wounds?

Topical Analgesics: A Review of Reviews and a Bit of Perspective.

Topical Compounded Pain Creams And Pain Perception (TOPCAPP).

National Survey: Topical Prescription Creams Reduce Pain in Five of Every Six Chronic Pain Patients, Without Need for Opioids or Other Narcotics – CNBC.

Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis.