Practitioner Resources: Anti–Infective–Focused

Information Regarding Drug Usage – Links to Abstracts and Research Articles

Amikacin

Aerosol performance of large respirable particles of amikacin sulfate produced by spray and freeze drying techniques.

In vitro effect of chlorhexidine and amikacin on oral gram-negative bacilli from bone marrow transplant recipients.

Amphotericin

A targeted peritransplant antifungal strategy for the prevention of invasive fungal disease after lung transplantation: a sequential cohort analysis.

Prophylactic application of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B in hematologic patients with neutropenia.

Use of nebulized amphotericin B in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.

Advances in upper airway diseases and allergen immunotherapy.

Association of topical amphotericin B lipid complex treatment to standard therapy for rhinomaxillary mucormycosis after liver transplantation: a case report.

A meta-analysis of topical amphotericin B for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with intranasal amphotericin B: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial.

Treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (fungus ball type, mural thickness type).

Colonization in patients receiving and not receiving topical antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Antibiotic prophylaxis of respiratory tract infection in mechanically ventilated patients. A prospective, blinded, randomized trial of the effect of a novel regimen.

Effects of topical antimicrobial agents on the human neutrophil respiratory burst.

Prevention of nosocomial lung infection in ventilated patients: use of an antimicrobial pharyngeal nonabsorbable paste.

Efficacious treatment of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis with topical amphotericin B.

A case series of the management of symptomatic azole-resistant candida (vaginal gel).

Topical amphotericin B and subconjunctival injection of fluconazole (combination therapy) versus topical amphotericin B (monotherapy) in treatment of keratomycosis.

Otic administration of amphotericin B 0.25% in sterile water.

Azithromycin

Inhaled azithromycin therapy.

Azithromycin inhibits mucus hypersecretion from airway epithelial cells.

Aztreonam

Efficacy and safety of inhaled aztreonam lysine for airway pseudomonas in cystic fibrosis.

Bifonazole

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Boric acid

Antifungal agents vs. boric acid for treating chronic mycotic vulvovaginitis.

Prevalence of Candida glabrata and its response to boric acid vaginal suppositories in comparison with oral fluconazole in patients with diabetes and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Prolonged (3-month) mycological cure rate after boric acid suppositories in diabetic women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Treatment of Torulopsis glabrata vaginitis: retrospective review of boric acid therapy.

Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder.

Butenafine

Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.

Caspofungin

Stability of extemporaneously prepared 0.5-percent caspofungin eye drops: a potential cost-savings exercise.

Penetration of topically administered 0.5-percent caspofungin eye drops into human aqueous humor.

Alternaria keratitis: clinical presentation and resolution with topical fluconazole or intrastromal voriconazole and topical caspofungin.

Suitability of caspofungin for aerosol delivery: physicochemical profiling and nebulizer choice.

Cefazolin

Pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous cefazolin in patients with clean surgical wounds.

Cefotaxime

Delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration.

Topical use of antibiotics for paranasal sinusitis.

Effect of the topical application of some newer antibiotics on the cerebral cortex.

Ceftazidime

Nebulized ceftazidime in experimental pneumonia caused by partially resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Ciclopirox

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

The use of 40% urea cream in the treatment of moccasin tinea pedis.

Ciprofloxacin

Spray-freeze-dried liposomal ciprofloxacin powder for inhaled aerosol drug delivery.

Topical ciprofloxacin is superior to topical saline and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea in children: the results of a randomized clinical trial.

Inhaled antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections: focus on ciprofloxacin.

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of ciprofloxacin containing niosomes for pulmonary delivery.

Topical steroid drops for the treatment of sinus ostia stenosis in the postoperative period.

Clarithromycin

Aerosol-based efficient delivery of clarithromycin, a macrolide antimicrobial agent, to lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages for treatment of respiratory infections.

Physicochemical and anti-bacterial performance characterization of clarithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system.

Beneficial effect of antibiotics on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells exposed to bacterial toxins.

Clindamycin

Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris.

Antibiotic treatment of acne may be associated with upper respiratory tract infections.

Improvement of cystic fibrosis during treatment with isotretinoin.

The effects of topical oral clindamycin antibiotic rinses on the bacterial content of saliva on healthy human subjects.

The use of topical oral antibiotics in head and neck prophylaxis: is it justified?

Clotrimazole

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Clotrimazole

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of clotrimazole gel containing almond oil and tween 80 as penetration enhancer for topical application.

Efficacy of topical antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis: a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis involving 14 treatments.

Repeated rhinoscopic and serologic assessment of the effectiveness of intranasally administered clotrimazole for the treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Colistimethate

A retrospective observational study on the efficacy of colistin by inhalation as compared to parenteral administration for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Monotherapy with inhaled colistin for the treatment of patients with ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis due to polymyxin-only-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria.

A closer look at aerosolized colistin.

Benefits of aerosolized colistin for ventilator-associated pneumonia: absence of proof versus proof of absence?

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to high-dose colistin aerosol therapy.

Randomized controlled trial of nebulized colistimethate sodium as adjunctive therapy of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria.

Aerosolized plus intravenous colistin versus intravenous colistin alone for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a matched case-control study.

Inhaled colistin for the treatment of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in critically ill children without cystic fibrosis.

Treatment of recurrent Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilator-associated pneumonia with doxycycline and aerosolized colistin.

Inhaled colistin as adjunctive therapy to intravenous colistin for the treatment of microbiologically documented ventilator-associated pneumonia: a comparative cohort study.

Post-neurosurgical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis successfully treated with intrathecal colistin. A new case and a systematic review of the literature.

Colistin administration to pediatric and neonatal patients.

Inhaled anti-infective agents: emphasis on colistin.

Nebulized bacitracin/colimycin: a treatment option in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis with Staphylococcus aureus? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study.

Aerosolized colistin as adjunctive treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a prospective study.

Comparative efficacy of two doses of nebulized colistimethate in the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis.

Dry powder inhalation of colistin in cystic fibrosis patients: a single dose pilot study.

Effect of long-term nebulized colistin on lung function and quality of life in patients with chronic bronchial sepsis.

Induced tolerance to nebulized colistin after severe reaction to the drug.

Pharmacokinetics of inhaled colistin in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Fluconazole

Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear.

Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study.

The role of antifungal therapy in the prevention of recurrent allergic fungal rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, controlled study (nasal spray or irrigation).

A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer for treatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

The comparison of solitary topical micafungin or fluconazole application in the treatment of Candida fungal keratitis.

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Flucytosine

Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine.

Treatment of Candida glabrata using topical amphotericin B and flucytosine.

Fluconazole

A comparative evaluation of combination therapy of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% compared with fluconazole 1% alone in a nail lacquer fortreatment of onychomycosis: therapeutic trial.

Antifungal activity of ibuprofen alone and in combination with fluconazole against Candida species.

Chronic fungal vaginitis: the value of cultures.

Combination of fluconazole and urea in a nail lacquer for treating onychomycosis.

Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Fluconazole nasal spray in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a pilot study.

Medicated Lollipops for the Treatment of Oral Thrush in Children.

Prevalence of Candida glabrata and its response to boric acid vaginal suppositories in comparison with oral fluconazole in patients with diabetes and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

The role of antifungal therapy in the prevention of recurrent allergic fungal rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, controlled study.

Treatment of onychomycosis: pros and cons of antifungal agents.

Gentamicin

Gentamicin sulfate, neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate bladder irrigation.

Comparison of gentamicin distribution in the inner ear following administration via the endolymphatic sac or round window.

Systemic absorption of topical gentamicin sinus irrigation.

Effect of an implantable gentamicin-collagen sponge on sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery: a randomized trial.

Gentamicin-collagen sponge for infection prophylaxis in colorectal surgery.

Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for topical delivery of gentamicin sulphate.

Comparison of gentamicin and mupirocin in the prevention of exit-site infection and peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis.

Safety and efficacy of once-daily nasal irrigation for the treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis.

Local administration of antibiotics by gentamicin-collagen sponge does not improve wound healing or reduce recurrence rate after pilonidal excision with primary suture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Effect of gentamicin-absorbed collagen in wound healing in pilonidal sinus surgery: a prospective randomized study.

Effect of endosinusal treatment on cellular markers in mild and moderate asthmatics.

Influence of combined intravenous and topical antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of infections, organ dysfunctions, and mortality in critically ill surgical patients: a prospective, stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from oxygen-exposed, Pseudomonas-infected baboons.

Gentamicin aerosol therapy in 18 dogs: failure to induce detectable serum concentrations of the drug.

Effects of topical antimicrobial agents on the human neutrophil respiratory burst.

Griseofulvin

Topical griseofulvin in dermatophytoses.

Itraconazole

Topical antibiotic, antifungal, and antiseptic solutions decrease ciliary activity in nasal respiratory cells.

Antifungal treatment and chronic rhinosinusitis.

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients: issues and management.

Isoconazole

Double-blind study with topical Isoconazole and Terbinafine for the treatment of one patient with bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris and suggestions for new differential diagnosis.

Rapid relief of intertrigo-associated pruritus due to Candida albicans with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

Isoconazole nitrate vs isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate in the treatment of tinea inguinalis: results of a multicenter retrospective study.

Ketonazole

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid 5 percent mouthwash is an effective mode of therapy in treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcerations.

Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin inhalation solution (MP-376) in patients with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

In vitro pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin and other aerosolized antibiotics under multiple conditions relevant to chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis.

Diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis: second consensus.

Nebulized bacitracin/colimycin: a treatment option in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis with Staphylococcus aureus? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study.

Evidence-based recommendations for antimicrobial nasal washes in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Topical antibiotic, antifungal, and antiseptic solutions decrease ciliary activity in nasal respiratory cells.

LoxaSperse™

Technical Report: Characterization of the Physical and Microbiological Properties of LoxaSperse™.

Technical Report: Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing of a Budesonide LoxaSperse™ Dispersion.

Technical Report: Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing of a Gentamicin LoxaSperse™ Dispersion.

Technical Report: The Antimicrobial Activity of Itraconazole and LoxaSperse™ Against Biofilms of C. albicans.

Metronidazole

Topical treatment of peri-implantitis with metronidazole dental gel 25%. Clinical analysis and microbiological control.

Clinical evaluation of subgingival application of metronidazole 25%, and adjunctive therapy.

Effects of topical application of metronidazole-containing mucoadhesive lipogel in periodontal pockets.

Malignant cutaneous wounds: a management protocol.

Systemic absorption of metronidazole after application of a metronidazole 25% dental gel.

Topical metronidazole (10 percent) decreases posthemorrhoidectomy pain and improves healing.

Topical metronidazole can reduce pain after surgery and pain on defecation in postoperative hemorrhoidectomy.

Micafungin

Successful topical application of a new antifungal agent, micafungin, in the treatment of refractory fungal corneal ulcers: report of three cases and literature review.

The comparison of solitary topical micafungin or fluconazole application in the treatment of Candida fungal keratitis.

Initial characterization of micafungin pulmonary delivery via two different nebulizers and multivariate data analysis of aerosol mass distribution profiles.

Miconazole

Gradient HPLC-DAD stability indicating determination of miconazole nitrate and lidocaine hydrochloride in their combined oral gel dosage form.

Suction clearance and 2% topical miconazole versus the same combination with acidic drops in the treatment of otomycosis.

Minocycline

Topical minocycline for managing symptoms of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Moxifloxacin

Efficacy of topically delivered moxifloxacin against wound infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Efficacy and safety of adjunctive local moxifloxacin delivery in the treatment of periodontitis.

Mupirocin

Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.

Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbations due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin irrigations.

Microbiological outcomes following mupirocin nasal washes for symptomatic, Staphylococcus aureus-positive chronic rhinosinusitis following endoscopic sinus surgery.

Association of high-level mupirocin resistance and multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at an academic center in the midwestern United States.

Topical mupirocin/sodium hypochlorite reduces peritonitis and exit-site infection rates in children.

Emerging elevated mupirocin resistance rates among staphylococcal isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000): correlations of results from disk diffusion, Etest and reference dilution methods.

Topical antibiotics and clinical use.

The preventive effects of mupirocin against nasotracheal intubation-related bacterial carriage.

Reduction in gram-positive pneumonia and antibiotic consumption following the use of a SDD protocol including nasal and oral mupirocin.

Efficacy of nasal Staphylococcus aureus eradication by topical nasal mupirocin in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

Nasal lavage with mupirocin for the treatment of surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis.

In vitro activity of mupirocin on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its potential implications in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Development of microsponges for topical delivery of mupirocin.

Nystatin

Survey of topical oral solutions for the treatment of chemo-induced oral mucositis.

The efficacy of nystatin combined with topical microbial agents in the treatment of burn wound sepsis.

Ofloxacin

Enhanced bacterial uptake and bactericidal properties of ofloxacin loaded on bioadhesive hydrogels against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Polymyxin B

Salvage treatment of pneumonia and initial treatment of tracheobronchitis caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli with inhaled polymyxin B.

Sulfamethoxazole

Medical management of sinusitis: educational goals and management guidelines. The International Conference on sinus Disease.

Antibacterial treatment of chronic bronchitis (author’s transl).

Topical provocation of fixed drug eruption due to sulphamethoxazole.

Terbinafine

Efficacy of topical antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis: a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis involving 14 treatments.

Efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical terbinafine nail solution in patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis: results from three randomized studies using double-blind vehicle-controlled and open-label active-controlled designs.

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

Toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients: issues and management.

Treatment of onychomycosis: pros and cons of antifungal agents.

Tobramycin

Addition of inhaled tobramycin to ciprofloxacin for acute exacerbations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in adult bronchiectasis.

Inhaled tobramycin in non-cystic fibrosis patients with bronchiectasis and chronic bronchial infection with Pseduomonas aeruginosa.

Outpatient Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bronchial Colonization with Long-term Inhaled Colistin, Tobramycin, or Both in Adults without Cystic Fibrosis.

Pulmonary spray dried powders of tobramycin containing sodium stearate to improve aerosolization efficiency.

Spray-dried carrier-free dry powder tobramycin formulations with improved dispersion properties.

Tobramycin bladder irrigation for treating a urinary tract infection in a critically ill patient.

Preparation and characterization of spray-dried tobramycin powders containing nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery.

Dose-dependent effects of topical tobramycin in an animal model of Pseudomonas sinusitis.

Aerosol antibiotics in cystic fibrosis.

Effects of an LL-37-derived antimicrobial peptide in an animal model of biofilm Pseudomonas sinusitis.

Evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of topical tobramycin against Pseudomonas sinonasal biofilms.

Inhaled tobramycin in children with acute bacterial rhinopharyngitis.

Topical antibiotics on tracheostoma prevents exogenous colonization and infection of lower airways in children.

Colonization in patients receiving and not receiving topical antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Epidemiological impact of prolonged systematic use of topical SDD on bacterial colonization of the tracheobronchial tree and antibiotic resistance. A three year study.

The effect of oropharyngeal decontamination using topical nonabsorbable antibiotics on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory tract infections in multiple trauma patients.

Inhaled tobramycin (TOBI): a review of its use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Trimethoprim

Use of dapsone in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a foal.

Medical management of sinusitis: educational goals and management guidelines. The International Conference on sinus Disease.

Methaemoglobinaemia secondary to treatment with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole associated with inhaled nitric oxide.

Pulmonary Nocardiosis.

Vancomycin

The effect of topical vancomycin applied to sternotomy incisions on postoperative serum vancomycin levels.

The management of acute lower respiratory tract infection.

Antibiotic therapy of infections of the lower respiratory tract.

In vitro activity of mupirocin on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its potential implications in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Topical antibiotic ointments for staphylococcal nasal carriers: survey of current practices and comparison of bacitracin and vancomycin ointments.

Voriconazole

The mycotic ulcer treatment trial: a randomized trial comparing natamycin vs voriconazole.

The efficacy of voriconazole in 24 ocular Fusarium infections.

Inhaled voriconazole for prevention of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

Characterization and pharmacokinetic analysis of aerosolized aqueous voriconazole solution.

The efficacy of voriconazole in 24 ocular Fusarium infections.

Alternaria keratitis: clinical presentation and resolution with topical fluconazole or intrastromal voriconazole and topical caspofungin.

Topical voriconazole solution for cutaneous aspergillosis in a pediatric patient after bone marrow transplant.

Xylitol

Tolerability of oral xylitol solution in young children: implications for otitis media prophylaxis.

Xylitol in preventing acute otitis media.

General – Antibacterial

Aerosol antibiotics: considerations in pharmacological and clinical evaluation.

Nasal irrigation with or without drugs: the evidence.

Epithelial profiling of antibiotic controlled release respiratory formulations.

Topical antibiotic treatment reduces tympanostomy tube biofilm formation.

Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

Local antibiotic delivery using tailorable chitosan sponges: the future of infection control?

Topical therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization: impact on infection risk.

Cospray dried antibiotics for dry powder lung delivery.

Using antimicrobial solution for irrigation in appendicitis to lower surgical site infection rates.

Microparticles for inhalational delivery of antipseudomonal antibiotics.

Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying for dry powder inhaler formulation of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

Microbiological insights into respiratory infections and the opportunities for inhaled therapy.

Topical Antimicrobial Therapy for Treating Chronic Wounds.

Inhaled antimicrobial therapy: doses, osmolalities and pH.
Ashp Midyear Clinical Meeting. 41(Dec). 2006.

Aerosolized antibiotics for treating hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Administration of antibiotics via the respiratory tract as monotherapy for pneumonia.